Appellate Court Upholds Trial Judge's Findings in 911 SBD Ltd v Bury Van Hire Ltd Case, Emphasizing High Threshold for Appeal on Factual Determinations

Citation: [2024] EWCA Civ 26
Judgment on


In the appellate judgment of the case 911 SBD Ltd v Bury Van Hire Ltd & Anor, a meticulous evaluation of the lower court’s decision was undertaken by MR JUSTICE CONSTABLE. The appeal called into question the factual determinations previously made and the appellant contended that the High Court had inadequately weighed certain evidentiary matters amongst other criticisms. The case brings to the fore established legal principles governing appeals on facts and lays bare the high threshold that must be satisfied to overturn a trial judge’s findings.

Key Facts

The appellant, 911 SBD Ltd, sought to overturn a trial decision dismissing its claim for the return of deposits totaling £50,000 paid for the purchase of a Ferrari. The claim was predicated on an alleged agreement with the respondent, Bury Van Hire Ltd (BVH), which the appellant contended BVH had breached. The first respondent asserted the transactions pertained to a separate agreement involving a third party, and no agreement concerning the Ferrari’s purchase had been made with the appellant. Upon scrutinizing the evidence presented, the trial court ruled in favour of the respondent, prompting the appeal.

The appellate judgment reiterated several legal principles that govern the appellate review of a trial court’s findings of fact. Central among these principles is the notion that findings of fact by a trial judge should not be disturbed unless they can be shown to be plainly wrong. To reach the threshold of ‘plainly wrong’, the appellant must demonstrate:

  1. The trial judge exhibited a material error of law or made critical findings of fact with no basis in evidence.
  2. The decision was reached through a demonstrable misunderstanding of relevant evidence or a decision that no reasonable judge could have reached.
  3. The original judgment omitted engagement with critical evidence or submissions which would fundamentally affect the trial’s outcome.

This framework was expounded upon through a myriad of cases including the precedent-setting Henderson v Foxworth Investments Ltd and Deutsche Bank AG v Sebastian Holdings, which underscored the high bar for appellate intervention in factual determinations made at trial.

Additionally, the requirement for a reasoned judgment was addressed. Wherein a judgment may be found lacking, it was established that the trial judge should be the first port of call for the provision of additional reasons. If clarification is offered and refused, this may weaken any subsequent appeal on grounds of inadequate reasoning.

The case also reflected on the approach to assessing the credibility of witnesses and the weight given to documentary evidence over oral testimony, especially in light of the passage of time between the events at issue and the trial.


In the appeal judgment, each challenge raised by the appellant was methodically dissected. The appellate court emphasized the merit in the trial judge’s preference for the evidence of the first respondent’s witness, deemed “particularly unimpressive” against the appellant’s contradictory testimony. Despite identifying issues such as the absence of a payment authorization document and discrepancies in written versus oral evidence, none were deemed sufficiently material to disturb the lower court’s decision. Consequently, the appellate court upheld the dismissal of the appellant’s claim, citing no grounds for appeal that would justify a reversal or indicate that the judge at first instance was plainly wrong.


The appellate decision in 911 SBD Ltd v Bury Van Hire Ltd & Anor confirms the substantial deference given to a trial judge’s findings of fact under English law. The judgment illuminated the formidable burden faced by appellants challenging such findings, underscoring the discretion afforded to trial judges in assessing evidence and the weight placed on the reasoned judgments they provide. In this particular instance, despite several avenues of criticism being pursued, the appellate court found that the trial judge’s conclusions rested firmly within the bounds of reasonableness and judicial discretion, leaving no avenue for successful appeal.

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