Court of Appeal Upholds Contempt Sentence in Land Use Case

Citation: [2023] EWCA Civ 1389
Judgment on


The Court of Appeal’s decision in the case of John Bruce v Wychavon District Council [2023] EWCA Civ 1389 provides a comprehensive analysis of the principles and legal standards applied when considering an appeal against a finding of contempt of court and a subsequent custodial sentence. This article delves into the reasoning behind the decision, particularly focusing on grounds for setting aside the original order and the appropriateness of the sentence imposed.

Key Facts

John Bruce, the appellant in this case, was found in contempt of court for multiple breaches of an injunction related to the use of land, contrary to previous planning enforcement notices. Despite previous suspended sentences and terms of imprisonment, Mr. Bruce continued to breach the injunction by storing and disposing of waste illegally, warranting a fourth contempt application by the Council.

A pertinent issue arose when Mr. Bruce did not attend the fourth committal trial, leading to an order made against him in his absence. Claiming medical incapacity, Mr. Bruce sought to set aside the order at a subsequent hearing. However, the judge found the medical evidence insufficient and proceeded to sentence him to 12 months’ imprisonment for contempt.

The case primarily deals with two legal principles:

1. The criteria for setting aside a judgment under Civil Procedure Rules 39.3:

The appellate court reiterated the criteria under CPR 39.3, requiring an applicant who failed to attend the trial to act promptly, have a good reason for not attending, and demonstrate a reasonable prospect of success at trial. The court endorsed Norris J’s guidance in Levy v Ellis-Carr [2012] EWHC 63 (Ch) on what constitutes satisfactory medical evidence, which includes detailing the patient’s medical condition and providing a reasoned prognosis that explains why they could not attend trial.

2. The principles for sentencing in contempt cases:

The court referenced Liverpool Victoria Insurance Co. Ltd v Zafar [2019] EWCA Civ 392, which sets out a clear process for contempt sentencing. The steps include establishing culpability to determine whether the custody threshold is passed, discerning the minimum period of committal appropriate to the seriousness of the contempt, and considering whether the sentence could be suspended. Factors indicating whether or not suspension is appropriate were also taken into account, based on the Sentencing Council’s guidelines.


The Court of Appeal concluded that Mr. Bruce failed to provide adequate medical evidence as per the guidelines in Ellis-Carr. The court also noted the absence of any alternative arrangements made by Mr. Bruce to attend the trial, as well as the lack of any written evidence contending the allegations. Furthermore, given the appellant’s admitted breach and the weight of evidence against him, the court decided that there was no reasonable prospect of successfully refuting the contempt allegations upon a retrial.

Regarding the imposed sentence, the appellate court agreed that a custodial sentence of 12 months was neither excessive nor inappropriate. This decision was influenced by Mr. Bruce’s history of non-compliance, the cumulative gravity of his contemptuous actions, and the fact that lesser sanctions had failed to deter him from repeating the offense.


The Court of Appeal’s decision in John Bruce v Wychavon District Council underscores the strict standards applied to applications seeking to set aside judgments for failure to attend trial, particularly regarding the quality of medical evidence. It also affirms the principles governing sentencing in contempt proceedings, illustrating the courts’ discretion in ensuring sentences are commensurate with the gravity of non-compliance and the offender’s history. The case highlights the courts’ commitment to uphold the rule of law and the integrity of court orders, emphasizing that repeated breaches of injunctions, especially in environmental matters, warrant significant custodial sentences.

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