Case Law Article: UK Court Upholds State Immunity in Dispute with Venezuela

Citation: [2023] EWCA Civ 1497
Judgment on


The case of UK P&I Club NV & Anor v Republica Bolivariana de Venezuela involves the application of international legal principles regarding state immunity, article 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), and the Arbitration Act 1996 to the particular context of anti-suit injunctions. The key legal questions revolve around whether a sovereign state can be restrained by a UK court from pursuing proceedings in another jurisdiction, and the interaction between domestic law, international customs, and human rights principles.

Key Facts

The dispute arose from a naval incident involving a collision between the Venezuelan navy patrol vessel, the Naiguatá, and the ice-classed cruise liner, the Resolute. Following the incident, Venezuela brought claims against the Resolute and its P&I insurer for damages in Venezuela and Dutch Curaçao. The insurers, UK P&I Club NV (the Clubs), contended that Venezuela was bound by the London arbitration and English law clauses in the insurance contract. An interim anti-suit injunction against Venezuela was granted by the English court, which Venezuela sought to contest, arguing that it had immunity under section 13(2)(a) of the State Immunity Act 1978 (SIA), and that the anti-suit injunction impaired its rights under article 6(1) ECHR.

The following legal principles are pivotal in this case:

  1. State Immunity Act (SIA) 1978: The SIA, particularly section 13(2)(a), stipulates that no injunction should be granted against a state, reflecting the principle of sovereign immunity in legal proceedings. This case tested the tension between the SIA and Article 6 ECHR.

  2. European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR): Article 6(1) ECHR guarantees the right to a fair and public hearing within a reasonable time, allowing this case to examine the proportionality of restricting this right under the SIA.

  3. Restrictive Doctrine of State Immunity: The doctrine distinguishes between acts of a sovereign state which may be immune from jurisdiction (sovereign acts) and commercial acts which are not. This doctrine is core to determining the legitimacy of section 13(2)(a) SIA’s application.

  4. Customary International Law & Enforcement Jurisdiction: The case delves into the lack of an established customary international law regarding the classification of injunctions as part of a state’s enforcement jurisdiction versus its adjudicative jurisdiction.

  5. Human Rights Act (HRA) 1998: Section 3 HRA requires domestic legislation to be read compatibly with the ECHR, if possible. The Clubs sought to “read down” section 13(2)(a) to align with article 6 ECHR.


The Court of Appeal upheld the High Court’s decision that section 13(2)(a) SIA does not violate article 6 ECHR and that the UK had pursued a legitimate policy in enacting section 13(2)(a). The court found that:

  • The provision lays within a range of possible rules permitted by current international practices.
  • Anti-suit injunctions are classified within the court’s enforcement jurisdiction within domestic UK policy.
  • The restrictive principle of state immunity under international law does not cover injunctions, as there is no widespread practice accepted as law in this area.
  • Article 6 rights were not sufficiently impaired to merit their overruling in the domestic policy context.
  • The provision of section 13(2)(a) SIA should not be read down under the HRA, as that would contradict the fundamental principles of the legislation.


UK P&I Club NV & Anor v Republica Bolivariana de Venezuela exemplifies the UK court’s careful balancing of international legal principles with domestic policies concerning state immunity and human rights. The case affirms sovereign immunity doctrine else within the perimeters of enforcement jurisdiction and clarifies that anti-suit injunctions are part of this jurisdiction for which states cannot be restrained by UK courts, in compliance with domestic policy and the SIA. By holding that section 13(2)(a) of the SIA does not impair article 6 ECHR rights disproportionately, the courts respect both sovereign states’ immunity in commercial disputes and uphold international practices that may range in approach on this issue.

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