Court of Appeal scrutinizes Home Office decision-making process in Ozmen v Secretary of State for the Home Department under ECAA Standstill Clause.

Citation: [2023] EWCA Civ 1366
Judgment on


In the recent case of Yusuf Ozmen v Secretary of State for the Home Department, the Court of Appeal scrutinized the decision-making process of the Home Office regarding a Turkish national’s application for leave to remain in the UK under the European Community Association Agreement with Turkey (ECAA). The case delves into the interpretation of the “Standstill Clause,” procedural fairness, and the rationality behind the Home Office’s refusal of the application.

Key Facts

Yusuf Ozmen, a Turkish national, applied for leave to remain in the UK, aspiring to establish a mobile barber business. The Home Office rejected his application based on two main arguments: the claimed work history could not be verified due to lack of SGK records, and concerns over the viability of his business plan based on public transport travel times. Ozmen’s appeal highlighted procedural unfairness, with a specific focus on the unconsidered evidence he had provided.

The case prominently explored the following legal principles:

  1. ECAA and the Standstill Clause: Applications by Turkish nationals have to be evaluated under the Immigration Rules as they were in 1973, dictated by the Standstill Clause in the ECAA. Applications are merit-based and require a feasibility analysis of the proposed business.

  2. Procedural Fairness: Applicants should be given a chance to address concerns raised by the decision-maker, typically through an interview, particularly when there are implications regarding the genuineness or sincerity of the application.

  3. Rationality Review: The concept of ‘credibility’ in application evaluations encompasses both genuineness and viability. A distinction must be clear in the decision-making process so that it remains rational and fair.

  4. Assessment of Evidence: Decision-makers are required to consider evidence provided by the applicant thoroughly. If vital information is overlooked or not adequately acknowledged, this may render the decision unjust.


The Court allowed the appeal on the grounds that the Home Office’s decision was predicated on an inadequate assessment, specifically neglecting evidence relevant to the public transport arrangements outlined by Ozmen. The Court ruled that this oversight, coupled with the Home Office’s reliance on an unrelated website for information, rendered the decision-making process flawed. Consequently, the matter was remitted for reconsideration with directions to issue a fresh decision.


The ruling reaffirms the principle that, within the scope of the ECAA’s Standstill Clause, the Home Office must reference the rules from 1973 when considering applications from Turkish nationals. This case underscores the need for meticulous and rational consideration of all relevant evidence without bias or omission. The judgment emphasizes the significance of clarity regarding the basis for rejecting applications, particularly distinguishing between concerns over viability versus genuineness. The procedural fairness aspect has been highlighted, reminding decision-making authorities that the merits of an application must be explicitly addressed and given due consideration. In this instance, the Court of Appeal’s intervention sets a precedent for the Home Office to uphold rigorous standards in its future assessments of business applications under the ECAA.

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