Court of Appeal Affirms Mens Rea Requirement in Money Laundering Case Under POCA POCA with Emphasis on Fair Trial Procedures

Citation: [2024] EWCA Crim 21
Judgment on


In the case of Jacob Gross v R ([2024] EWCA Crim 21), the Court of Appeal (Criminal Division) examined an appeal against a conviction relating to money laundering offences under the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 (POCA). The key legal topics discussed in the case were the elements of the offences under sections 328 and 329 of POCA, the definition of criminal property, and the mens rea requirement (knowledge or suspicion). The case analysis also touches upon the procedural aspect of how late changes to the legal interpretation presented by the prosecution or in judicial directions can impact the fairness of a trial.

Key Facts

Jacob Gross was convicted of two counts under POCA: entering into an arrangement concerning criminal property (s328) and acquiring criminal property (s329). His convictions related to proceeds from the unlawful sale of pharmaceutical products, specifically prescription-only medicines (POMs) and counterfeit medicines (CMs). The appellant’s companies had received and processed funds through merchant accounts from the sale of these illegal pharmaceutical products. Gross appealed against his conviction, arguing that the direction given by the trial judge on mens rea was a deviation from how the case had been presented by the prosecution, constituting unfairness in the trial.

The relevant legal principles considered in this case included:

  • Definition of Criminal Property (s340 POCA): Criminal property is defined as a person’s benefit from criminal conduct, with the alleged offender knowing or suspecting it represents such a benefit.

  • Predicate Offence: It is not necessary for the prosecution to demonstrate a specific predicate offence. This principle is linked to R v Anwoir ([2008] EWCA Crim 1354) where the court stated that the property must be shown to derive from crime, either through specific conduct being unlawful or an irresistible inference it derived from crime. The DPP v Bholah ([2011] UKPC 44) also emphasized the need for fairness in the requirement to provide particulars of the nature of the criminal activity generating the proceeds.

  • Mens Rea (Knowledge or Suspicion): As per R v Da Silva ([2006] EWCA Crim 1654), the mens rea for these offences is the defendant’s suspicion or knowledge of the money being derived from criminal activity. The actual type of underlying illegal activity need not be pinpointed as long as it’s established that the defendant suspects or knows of the criminal origin.

  • Jurisprudential Guidance on Late Changes to Prosecution Case: In the case of R v Acheampong ([2018] 1 Cr.App.R 7) and R v Ali ([2014] EWCA 948), the court highlighted the negative impact of late prosecution shifts on the accused’s right to a fair trial. Defence strategies and the accused’s explanations need to be directed toward the specific factual scenario that the prosecution alleges.


The appellate court dismissed the appeal, upholding Gross’s conviction. It was found that the explanatory note below the particulars of the offence had overreached by specifically referencing POMs and CMs, leading the jury to question if it was necessary to be sure that the appellant suspected or knew that the money came specifically from these sales. However, the trial judge’s answer to the jury’s question, clarifying that it sufficed to suspect that the property was criminal, was deemed as a correct application of the law. The Court concluded that this did not amount to a change in the case nor did it render the trial unfair.


The Court of Appeal’s analysis in Jacob Gross v R emphasized the statutory alignment of procedures with established law, reaffirming the POCA provisions on the necessity to prove knowledge or suspicion of criminal property’s origins for a money laundering conviction. Despite the defense’s contention of an unfair trial due to the late clarification of the mens rea requirement, the Court found the initial particulars to overstep the requirements of POCA and corrected this in the directions provided to the jury. This case serves as a pertinent reminder of the significance of clear judicial direction and the flexibility within legal definitions of predicate offences in money laundering cases.

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