R v Thomas Moore: Court of Appeal Addresses Improper Judicial Pressure on Guilty Pleas

Citation: [2023] EWCA Crim 1685
Judgment on


The case of R v Thomas Moore [2023] EWCA Crim 1685 is of special interest as it addresses the principles surrounding the entry of guilty pleas in criminal proceedings and the associated pressures that may come from the judiciary. The Court of Appeal reviewed the guilty pleas entered by the appellant and scrutinized the context in which they were made, drawing on legal principles regarding judicial pressure and appropriate case management. This article outlines the key facts, legal principles, and consequential outcomes as determined by the Court.

Key Facts

Thomas Moore pleaded guilty to two counts of breach of a Sexual Harm Prevention Order and one count of failure to comply with notification requirements. The validity of these pleas was subsequently appealed. The circumstances surrounding the pleas included the absence of Moore from the proceedings when preliminary discussions occurred and a ‘Goodyear indication’ offered by the judge without the defendant’s request. Furthermore, the appellant’s pleas were rendered equivocal following the appellant’s inaudible comments during arraignment, raising questions about whether they were entered voluntarily.

The prosecution conceded that Moore could not be guilty of the offence charged in count 3, as it related to an expired notification requirement. Counts 1 and 2, however, pertained to the claimed improper plea pressure by the presiding judge.

The case examines several vital legal principles:

  1. Voluntariness of Pleas: A foundational principle in criminal law is that the defendant must freely and voluntarily enter a plea of guilty or not guilty without improper pressure - as established in Nightingale [2013] EWCA Crim 405.

  2. Judicial Pressure and Goodyear Indications: Judicial pressure occurs when a judge imparts influence that unduly prompts a defendant to plead in a certain way. In this case, Lord Justice William Davis referred to the principles stated in Nightingale, emphasizing that a defendant is responsible for their plea choice, and judges must maintain their distance from the confidential decision-making process between the defendant and their counsel.

  3. Exceptions to Judicial Non-Intervention: Exceptions where a judge can indicate sentence include a Goodyear indication, which should only be provided upon the defendant’s request, or when the judge informs the defendant that the sentence will be the same regardless of a guilty plea or post-trial conviction.

In R v AB and others [2021] EWCA Crim 2003, the Court reaffirmed the necessity for judges to steer clear of plea influence, even in the face of mounting pressure for case disposal.


The Court of Appeal concluded that the plea pressure exerted by the judge was improper. The convictions for both counts 1 and 2 were deemed unsafe due to this pressure and the indistinct utterances made by Moore during his plea, which indicated potential equivocation about his guilt. Consequently, the guilty pleas and thus the convictions were quashed.

The court also addressed the Crown’s request for a retrial on counts 1 and 2, determining that it would not serve the interests of justice since doing so would not alter the already served sentence length. The case concluded without a retrial.


In R v Thomas Moore, the Court of Appeal delineated the fine line between judicial encouragement for case disposition and undue influence over a defendant’s plea decision. The case underscores the inviolable legal principle that a defendant’s plea must be free from undue pressure and wholly voluntary. It also exemplifies the court’s willingness to nullify convictions obtained under such questionable circumstances, preserving the integrity of the criminal justice process. Judges are reminded that active case management should never encroach upon the defendant’s autonomy concerning plea decisions. This case serves as a touchstone for maintaining judicial propriety and upholding the right to a fair trial.

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