Court of Protection Rules on Mental Capacity, Best Interests, and Restraint in Medical Treatment: X NHS Foundation Trust v RH

Citation: [2024] EWCOP 150
Judgment on


In the case of X NHS Foundation Trust v RH, the Court of Protection grappled with a multifaceted situation involving the interplay of a patient’s mental capacity, best interests, and the necessity of medical treatment under restraint. This case notably underscores the application of the Mental Capacity Act 2005 (MCA) and related legal principles in determining an individual’s capacity to make specific decisions and the permissibility of medical treatment without consent.

Key Facts

The respondent, RH, a 40-year-old man with hebephrenic schizophrenia, faced declining kidney function necessitating urological surgery. His condition resulted in paranoid delusions which impaired his capacity to make informed medical decisions. RH’s mother, Mrs H, played a significant role in corroborating the medical team’s perspectives and supported the Trust’s application for medical treatment. The hospital’s initial procedural and evidentiary missteps resulted in an adjournment and reconvening of the case for proper consideration.

The judges drew upon several established legal principles to navigate this complex case:

  1. Capacity Evaluation - Under the MCA sections 1-3, the court analyzed RH’s ability to make an informed decision regarding medical treatment (A Local Authority v JB, [2021] UKSC 52; York City Council v C, [2014] 2 WLR 1). This evaluation centered around whether the individual’s mental impairment caused an inability to make the specific decision in question (PCT v P, AH, and The Local Authority, [2009] COPLR).
  2. Best Interests Determination - The court considered RH’s best interests, as dictated by sections 1(5) and 4 of the MCA, factoring in his welfare in a holistic sense—medical, social, and psychological (Aintree University Hospitals NHS Trust v James, [2013] UKSC 67; M v N (by her litigation friend, the OS), Bury Clinical Commissioning Group, [2015] EWCOP 9).
  3. Use of Restraint - Given that RH’s mental health condition was expected to affect his compliance, the Trust sought authorisation under s63 of the MHA to use restraint during the medical procedure. The legal threshold for restraint was whether it was necessary and proportionate to the risk of harm, and such an intervention required a court order separate from the authorisation given under the MHA for treatment of the mental condition alone.


After considering the evidence, the court determined that RH lacked the capacity to decide on his admission for surgery and litigate the proceedings. The surgery was seen as in his best interests due to the potential improvement in kidney function and avoidance of decline and death. Moreover, restraint—both physical and chemical—was deemed permissible as a last resort and within the minimum necessary force. The court’s ruling allows for RH’s deprivation of liberty to facilitate the surgery, given the gravity of his physical health condition and the associated risks without treatment.


The judgment in X NHS Foundation Trust v RH sheds light on the judicial balancing act between respecting an individual’s autonomy and acting in their best interests when they lack capacity to make specific decisions. It illustrates the court’s role in carefully evaluating personal wishes against medical evidence and advocating for the least restrictive intervention suitable for the individual’s needs. The case reaffirms the importance of clarity, forethought, and adherence to procedural requirements for applications of this nature, both for the court’s efficient functioning and the safeguarding of vulnerable individuals’ rights and well-being.

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