Balancing Transparency and Privacy: Analysis of Margaret Farragher v The Information Commissioner Case

Citation: [2023] UKFTT 1000 (GRC)
Judgment on


The case of Margaret Farragher v The Information Commissioner concerns the balance between the public’s right to access information and the need to protect sensitive or personal data under the Freedom of Information Act 2000 (FOIA), as well as considerations about the effective conduct of public affairs. This article analyzes the key topics and legal principles involved in the case, providing insights into the First-tier Tribunal’s rationale in dismissing the appeal made by Ms. Farragher against the Information Commissioner’s (ICO) decision notice.

Key Facts

The appellant, Margaret Farragher, sought access to certain documents from the Northern Ireland Council for the Curriculum, Examinations and Assessment (CCEA) related to staffing and operational matters, which included correspondence regarding the recruitment of a Temporary Director of Curriculum and Assessment. The CCEA provided partial information, withholding the rest under various sections of FOIA including sections 36, 40(1), 40(2), and 41. The ICO upheld CCEA’s decision, leading Ms. Farragher to appeal.

The Tribunal’s decision was based on several key legal principles laid down in FOIA and the related case law. The main areas discussed include:

General Right of Access to Information

Under Section 1(1) of FOIA, the public is entitled to access information held by public authorities subject to certain exemptions. This sets the foundational right upon which the appellant’s request rests.

Exemption for Personal Data

Sections 40(1) and (2) provide exemptions for information constituting personal data of the appellant (40(1)) and third-party personal data that would breach data protection principles if disclosed (40(2)). This case emphasized the absolute nature of these exemptions, meaning that the public interest test does not apply.

Public Interest Test

Central to this case is the Section 36 exemption, particularly subsections (2)(b)(ii) and (2)(c), regarding prejudice to the effective conduct of public affairs. The “qualified person” (QP), in this case, the acting Interim Chief Executive of CCEA Leah Scott, provided an opinion that disclosure would inhibit the free and frank exchange of views for deliberation.

Reasonable Opinion of QP

The Tribunal upheld the ICO’s decision that the QP’s opinion was substantively reasonable as per the standard set in the Upper Tribunal case Commissioner v Malnick and ACBA, focusing on whether disclosure would likely prejudice the effective conduct of public affairs, particularly given the live recruitment process at the time of the request.

Information Provided in Confidence

Section 41 addresses confidentiality, but the Tribunal agreed with the ICO that given the finding on Section 36, there was no need to address this exemption separately.

Tribunal’s Role

The Tribunal’s role under Sections 57 and 58 of FOIA is to determine if the notice is in accordance with the law or if discretion should have been exercised differently, reviewing findings of fact as necessary.


In this case, the Tribunal concluded:

  • CCEA did not hold additional information beyond what was disclosed or exempted.
  • The exemptions under Section 40 regarding personal data were legitimately applied.
  • The Section 36 exemptions were engaged based on a substantively reasonable opinion of the QP.
  • CCEA breached Section 10 FOIA for the delayed response, but no further steps were required by the ICO.
  • The public interest in maintaining the exemptions outweighed the interest in disclosure.


The decision in Margaret Farragher v The Information Commissioner is pivotal in delineating the scope of FOIA exemptions, especially concerning personal data and the effective conduct of public affairs. It underscores the need for public bodies to substantiate their reliance on exemptions and the balance required in considering whether the public interest mandates disclosure. This case affirms that while transparency is crucial, it must be weighed against the potential harm to candid discussion and the privacy of individuals involved in sensitive processes like recruitment. The Tribunal’s systematic approach and reliance on established legal principles serve as a guiding benchmark for future similar cases.

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