High Court Upholds Tribunal Decision in Dr. Kamran Ali Case, Affirming Legal Standards in Medical Misconduct Appeals

Citation: [2023] EWHC 2984 (Admin)
Judgment on


In the recent case of Dr Kamran Ali v The General Medical Council, the High Court of Justice thoroughly examined an appeal brought against the decision of the Medical Practitioners Tribunal (the “Tribunal”). The appeal, heard before Michael Ford KC sitting as a Deputy High Court Judge, centered on the Tribunal’s determination that Dr. Kamran Ali’s actions towards a patient were sexually motivated, leading to the erasure of his name from the medical register. The judgment reaffirmed several key legal principles relevant to appeals against decisions of professional disciplinary tribunals, particularly in the context of the medical profession.

Key Facts

Dr. Kamran Ali was a General Practitioner trainee who faced allegations of misconduct involving inappropriate actions towards four female patients. Specific allegations included unindicated examinations, holding hands inappropriately, and looking at patients’ private areas without clinical reasoning or consent. Following Tribunal hearings, it was determined that his actions, particularly towards “Patient C,” were sexually motivated, and consequently, his registration was erased. The appeal challenged both the factual findings and the Tribunal’s approach, questioning whether the Tribunal wrongly placed the burden of proof and if it provided inadequate reasoning in its determinations.

Several legal principles and precedents were critical in the assessment of this case:

  • Standard and Burden of Proof: The Tribunal directed itself as per the balance of probabilities, the standard civil burden of proof, noting that the inherent improbability of events can influence the strength of the evidence required.

  • Assessment of Witness Credibility: In line with principles derived from R (Dutta) v General Medical Council and R (Khan) v General Medical Council, witness credibility should not be based solely on witness demeanor. Oral evidence should be analyzed cautiously against objective facts, particularly when recalling past events.

  • Professional Competence and Motivation: The Tribunal considered if Dr. Ali’s alleged actions could have resulted from a lack of competence or professional inexperience before determining sexual motivation. This aligns with the approach that tribunals must consider all viable explanations for a professional’s conduct.

  • Adequacy of Reasons: The appeal court analyzed whether the reasons provided by the Tribunal were adequate, enabling the appellant to understand why they lost.

  • Appellate Intervention in Factual Findings: The High Court maintained the principle from Byrne v General Medical Council that appellate courts should be hesitant to interfere with tribunals’ findings of primary fact, given the tribunal’s advantage of firsthand evidence assessment.


The High Court dismissed the appeal for several reasons:

  • The Tribunal’s findings of primary fact were not “plainly wrong or so out of tune with the evidence properly read as to be unreasonable.”

  • The Tribunal demonstrated a correct approach in assessing sexual motivation and did not prematurely conclude based on witness credibility or demeanor.

  • The Tribunal’s findings on Dr. Ali’s competence versus misconduct were supported by available evidence and were unaffected by errors that would justify appellate interference.

  • The Tribunal provided adequate reasons for its determinations enabling a clear understanding of its decisions.


The High Court’s careful scrutiny validated the Tribunal’s findings and underscored the importance of following proper legal standards in disciplinary proceedings, particularly when dealing with highly sensitive matters such as sexual misconduct in the medical field. The judgment confirms the deference appellate courts should generally give to tribunals’ factual determinations and that a precise application of legal principles is paramount for upholding professional standards within the legal framework concerning medical practice in the UK.

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