High Court Clarifies Definition of 'Pending Appeal' in Immigration Law: Geddes v Secretary of State

Citation: [2024] EWHC 66 (Admin)
Judgment on


In the High Court of Justice case of Rupert Junior Geddes v Secretary of State for the Home Department, the court was tasked with determining the lawfulness of a deportation order and subsequent detention of the claimant based on the interpretation of section 104 of the Nationality, Immigration and Asylum Act 2002 (“the 2002 Act”). The judgment revolved around the statutory definition of when an appeal under section 82(1) is “pending” and consequently, the associated rights to remain in the UK during the appeal process.

Key Facts

Rupert Junior Geddes, a national of Jamaica, was subjected to a deportation order on the grounds of public good after being convicted of wounding with intent to cause grievous bodily harm. Geddes had lodged an appeal against the deportation order, and while this appeal was pending at the Supreme Court, he was detained to effectuate his removal from the UK. The central question before Mr Justice Lane was whether Geddes’ pending appeal to the Supreme Court meant that the deportation order was unlawful, and by extension, whether Geddes’ detention was illegal.

The case hinged on the interpretation of “pending” as described in section 104 of the 2002 Act in its various forms, from its original enactment to its form at the time of the deportation order.

Initially, the court considered the principle of expressio unius est exclusio alterius, which suggests that the mention of one thing excludes others. This principle became pivotal in understanding the legislative intent behind section 104(2) and its exhaustive enumeration of situations where an appeal is not ‘finally determined.‘

The court analyzed the significance of modifications to section 104 over time, contrasting the position prior to amendments made in April 2005 and February 2010. The 2005 amendment removed broader references to “any kind of ‘further appeal’” and confined the meaning of a pending appeal to specific circumstances, explicitly excluding appeals to the Supreme Court.

The subsequent adoption of the Tribunals, Courts and Enforcement Act 2007 established the First-tier and Upper Tribunals and clarified the appeals process, again without reference to the Supreme Court.

The court also referred to the case Niaz (NIAA 2002 s. 104: pending appeal) [2019] UKUT 00399 (IAC) to support the view that only specific situations mentioned in section 104(2) prevent an appeal from being considered as ‘finally determined.‘


Mr Justice Lane concluded that:

  • The deportation order against the claimant was lawfully made.
  • The detention of the claimant to effectuate the deportation order was lawful.
  • The application for judicial review was dismissed, reaffirming that, based on section 104, an appeal to the Supreme Court does not have a statutory prohibition against removal.


The case of Rupert Junior Geddes v Secretary of State for the Home Department demonstrates a rigorous application of statutory interpretation principles to uphold the legality of administrative actions. It underscores the court’s role in defining the scope of an appeal as ‘pending’ within the meaning of the legislation. It firmly establishes that unless explicitly included within section 104 of the 2002 Act, appeals, even those to the highest courts such as the Supreme Court, do not render a deportation order invalid nor protect the appellant from detention to effectuate such an order. The outcome is a seminal clarification of the statutory terms and will serve as a guiding precedent in similar cases involving the interpretation of complex immigration legislation.

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