High Court Dismisses Challenge to Essex County Council's Decision on Accommodation and Statutory Duties Under Children Act 1989

Citation: [2024] EWHC 264 (Admin)
Judgment on


The case of R (on behalf of TW) v Essex County Council represents a judicial exploration into the statutory provisions surrounding the care and accommodation of young people under the Children Act 1989 and the duties of local authorities. The High Court’s scrutiny of various legal principles highlights the nuanced approach required when considering whether a young person is a child in need, the provision of accommodation under Section 20, the exercise of discretion for treating an individual as a former relevant child, and matters of timing in judicial review applications.

Key Facts

The Claimant, TW, was a young person born in May 2004 who became involved with Essex County Council (the Defendant) after his family circumstances left him without stable long-term accommodation. The Defendant completed an assessment of TW’s needs and concluded that he was not a child in need under the Children Act 1989, directing him towards housing support via the Essex Young People’s Partnership (EYPP). TW challenged the Defendant’s decisions, alleging failure to recognize him as a ‘former relevant child’, the Defendant’s policy regarding accommodation under EYPP (now Essex NEST), and the refusal to exercise discretion to treat him as such.

The case pivoted on the interpretation and application of several legal principles:

Children Act 1989 and Accommodation Duties

The Defendant’s duty to provide accommodation under Section 20 of the Children Act 1989 arises when a child within their area is deemed ‘in need’. Whether a child is ‘in need’ is contingent upon their health, development, or disability status, and the capacity of provided services to improve said health and development. The Defendant’s determination that TW was not a child in need was based on the assessment that his familial support system, albeit imperfect, did not render him in need under the statute.

Judicial Review and Rationality Challenge

The court applied the principle of rationality in reviewing the assessment decision. TW’s legal representation argued that the Defendant’s decision was irrational, but the court found that the decision was within the scope of professional judgment and did not warrant substitution by the court. The acknowledgment of homelessness and the services TW received that could be rendered under the Localism Act 2011 did not automatically qualify him as a child in need.

Former Relevant Child and Discretionary Power

The court considered the discretion to treat a person as a former relevant child. This discretion arises in instances where an assessment is flawed. The court referred to the case of GE (Eritrea) and subsequent cases which elucidate that such discretion must be exercised under specific circumstances, including prior unlawful conduct by the authority in the execution of its duties.

Timeliness in Judicial Review

Delays in claims for judicial review were discussed in light of TW’s claim being mounted following his 18th birthday. The court acknowledged that cases concerning former relevant child status often engage a continuing duty, thus potentially allowing claims to be considered even when raised after significant time has elapsed. Permission was granted based on the interconnected nature of the grounds, but the court outlined that such matters must be approached with reflection on the interaction between retrospective claims and statutory duties concerning care leaver status.


The High Court dismissed the application on all grounds, giving the following key determinations:

  1. TW was not irrationally determined to be a non-child in need, as the Defendant’s assessment fell within the ambit of professional judgment and acknowledged familial support.
  2. TW did not reject accommodation under Section 20, as this was not applicable given he was not assessed as a child in need.
  3. The accommodation under EYPP/Essex NEST was not provided pursuant to Section 20, and the Defendant’s contract limited referrals to Section 20 provisions.
  4. The Defendant lawfully declined to exercise discretionary powers to treat TW as a former relevant child, as this discretion is contingent on previous unlawful action, which was not established.
  5. On delay, the court would have been prepared to extend time for the application considering the grounds’ interconnection, despite any reservations about the interplay with the relevant case law.


The High Court’s decision affirms that judicial review of local authority decisions regarding the status and accommodation of young people is heavily reliant on the statutory framework of the Children Act 1989 and related legislation. The case underscores that professional judgment and the circumstances at the material time play a pivotal role in these decisions. Furthermore, it establishes limits on the discretion to categorize someone as a former relevant child, and the court’s approach to timeliness reflects a balance between allowing retrospective claims and respecting statutory guidance. The clarity in these principles aids legal professionals in addressing the precise application of law to complex factual scenarios involving young individuals and local authority assessments.

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