UK High Court Upholds Dual Criminality Standard in Yusuf Muhumud Extradition Case

Citation: [2024] EWHC 300 (Admin)
Judgment on


The recent case of Yusuf Muhumud v Government of Norway represents a pertinent example of extradition law in the context of dual criminality. The High Court of Justice addresses the legal standards necessary for extradition in the context of the Extradition Act 2003 and related case law. This article breaks down the key components and legal principles discussed in the case, aiming to provide clarity for legal professionals in understanding the intricate nuances of extradition and dual criminality within the UK legal system.

Key Facts

Yusuf Muhumud’s appeal centres on whether the conduct for which he is sought by Norway constitutes an offence under the laws of the UK, satisfying the dual criminality requirement of the Extradition Act 2003. The Norwegian Penal Code’s specified offence, threatening criminal conduct inducing serious fear, is contrasted with two possible analogous UK offences under the Malicious Communications Act 1988 and the Communications Act 2003. The appeal addressed whether necessary elements, as required by UK law, could be inferred from the request and the conduct particulars supplied by Norway.

The court’s analysis hinges on several legal principles relevant to dual criminality in extradition cases:

  • Conduct Test (Norris v USA [2008] UKHL 16 [2008] 1 AC 920): The extradition court must base its comparison on the conduct alleged against the accused in the foreign jurisdiction with a comparable offence in the UK.

  • Assange Irresistible Inference Test (Assange v Sweden [2011] EWHC 2849 (Admin)): When inferring a necessary element of a UK offence from the conduct described in an extradition request, it must be the only reasonable inference drawn from the alleged facts.

  • Cleveland ‘Missing Ingredient’ Test (Cleveland v United States [2019] EWHC 619 (Admin)): This test determines when the Assange test applies, which is only when the offence alleged in the requesting state lacks an ingredient essential to the UK offence, necessitating an inference from the supplied particulars of conduct.

The court further distinguishes between a ‘missing ingredient’ from a foreign offence and ‘irresistible inferences’ drawn from the particulars of alleged conduct. The principles from Norris are revisited for clarity, emphasizing a focus on the conduct alleged to align with UK offences, rather than the potential application post-extradition.


Upon examining the Norwegian specified offence and UK equivalent laws, the court found no ‘missing ingredient’ in the dual criminality test, deeming the appeal by Muhumud unsuccessful. The court opined that the offences in the Norwegian Penal Code inherently imply elements present in the relevant UK laws, such as intent and awareness of the menacing nature of the threats. An ‘irresistible inference’ from the conduct described in the request that Muhumud’s alleged threats intended to, or were aware of potentially, inducing distress, anxiety, or being menacing, was also established. Consequently, dual criminality requirements were met, and extradition was deemed lawful.


In Yusuf Muhumud v Government of Norway, the High Court emphatically reinforced the established extradition principle of dual criminality, aligning the conduct alleged in the foreign jurisdiction with that of a UK offence. The court navigated through the intricacies of ‘missing ingredients’ and ‘irresistible inferences’, entrusting significant weight to the particularities of the alleged conduct and the overall context supplied by the extradition request. The clarity provided by this case contributes to the precedent in extradition law, reaffirming the essential criteria that must be satisfied for the lawful extradition of individuals from the UK.

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