High Court Rules on Property Ownership Dispute in Insolvency Case

Citation: [2024] EWHC 49 (Ch)
Judgment on


In the case of Ann Nilsson & Anor v Mohammad Babar Iqbal & Anor [2024] EWHC 49 (Ch), the High Court of Justice, Business and Property Courts of England and Wales, adjudicated on matters pertaining to the beneficial ownership and subsequent right of possession and sale of a property following the insolvency of one party of a divorced couple. This case examines the intersection of insolvency law, property law, and the consequences of an Islamic divorce on property rights within the legal framework of England and Wales. The analysis herein focuses on the key legal principles applied by Insolvency and Companies Court Judge Burton.

Key Facts

The case involves an application brought by the trustees in bankruptcy of Mr. Mohammad Babar Iqbal, who sought a declaration of beneficial ownership and an order for possession and sale of a property known as Southview. Mr. Iqbal and Mrs. Iqbal had divorced under Islamic law and claimed to have reached an oral agreement that granted Mrs. Iqbal all beneficial interest in the property. The court was required to determine whether the trustees or Mrs. Iqbal held beneficial interests in the property, given the existence of a previous declaration of trust that indicated they held the property as tenants in common in equal shares.

Trusts of Land and Appointment of Trustees Act 1996 (TOLATA) and Insolvency Act 1986

Under Section 14(2) of TOLATA and Section 335A of the Insolvency Act 1986, the court can order the sale of a bankrupt’s property if it has been over a year since bankruptcy proceedings began, assuming no exceptional circumstances counter those interests.

The Law of Property (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1989

This law requires certain formalities for an agreement altering beneficial interests in land, including that it be in writing. The TR1 form, completed by Mr. and Mrs. Iqbal in 2003, established a declaration of trust which indicated their intent to hold the property as tenants in common in equal shares.

Proprietary Estoppel

This equitable remedy is contingent on three core elements:

  1. A clear and unambiguous assurance,
  2. Reasonable reliance by the claimant on that assurance,
  3. A sufficient detriment to the claimant, making it unconscionable for the assurance to be disregarded.

The court referred to jurisprudence, such as Stack v Dowden [2007] 2AC 432 and Pankhania v Chandegra [2012] EWCA Civ 1438, which illustrates the principles surrounding express declarations of trust and their ability to be varied.


Judge Burton concluded that no variation of the express declaration of trust, as per the requirements of the Law of Property (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1989, had been made to supersede the initial TR1 form. Moreover, the claim of proprietary estoppel was not sufficiently established by Mrs. Iqbal as there was no clear assurance, no definitive detrimental reliance, and no resulting substantial detriment that would render it unconscionable for Mr. Iqbal to deny her the promised interest.

Thus, the court declared that the trustees and Mrs. Iqbal are beneficially entitled to the property in equal shares, thereby upholding the original declaration as per the TR1 form.


In Ann Nilsson & Anor v Mohammad Babar Iqbal & Anor, the High Court applied established legal principles pertaining to trusts and property, bankruptcy, and the formality requirements for varying beneficial interests in property. The case reaffirms the necessity for written evidence when altering beneficial interests and illustrates the difficulty in establishing proprietary estoppel without clear and unambiguous evidence. This judgment serves to guide practitioners in similar circumstances on the importance of formal documentation in property and matrimonial matters, especially concerning subsequent insolvency proceedings. The decision underscores the Court’s adherence to statutory property rights and beneficial entitlements, emphasizing the need for clarity and certainty in property transactions.

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