High Court Delivers Landmark Judgment on FRAND Licensing in Optis v Apple Case

Citation: [2024] EWHC 197 (Ch)
Judgment on


The High Court of Justice in England and Wales delivered a detailed judgment in the case of Optis Cellular Technology LLC & Ors v Apple Retail UK Limited & Ors. The case involved intricate issues relating to patent law, specifically regarding the Fair, Reasonable, and Non-Discriminatory (FRAND) licensing of Standard Essential Patents (SEPs). This article provides a systematic analysis of the court’s findings, elucidating the legal principles applied and highlighting the implications for practitioners in the field of intellectual property law.

Key Facts

Optis Cellular Technology LLC and related corporate entities (hereinafter “Optis”) and Apple Retail UK Limited and its affiliates (hereinafter “Apple”) were involved in protracted litigation over the licensing of Optis’ SEP portfolio. The litigation spanned both UK and US jurisdictions, with parallel proceedings in the Eastern District of Texas (EDTX Proceedings).

Key to the dispute was the definition and scope of FRAND license terms, with Optis arguing for a worldwide FRAND license, including 5G standards, and rejecting ad valorem rates in favor of lump sum licenses. Substantial disagreement arose over the valuation of the SEP portfolio and appropriate royalty rates.

The judges relied on established FRAND licensing principles established by the Supreme Court in Unwired Planet (SC), particularly the notion that multiple FRAND-compliant licensing agreements may exist for any given set of circumstances.

The case underscored the court’s authority to determine and impose a worldwide license based on FRAND principles. It delved into the distinction between “legitimate” and “illegitimate” negotiating tactics by potential licensees and reaffirmed that simply seeking to negotiate terms does not constitute an “illegitimate” hold-out.

Additionally, the judgment explored the notion that while a court can posit what FRAND terms should consist of, the specifics can vary based on commercial negotiations demonstrating the parties’ fairness and reasonableness.

Significantly, the court opined on its role in declarations of FRAND terms vis-à-vis the principle of comity, suggesting that determinations of international licensing terms are primarily rooted in contract and not in competing territorial jurisdictions.


The High Court adjudicated on various consequential matters stemming from the FRAND question, including:

  • An annual worldwide license rate for Apple’s use of the Optis SEP patent stack.
  • The forward and backward-looking aspects of the license, including interest on past infringements and upfront payment requirements.
  • The scope of the FRAND license, specifically whether Optis patents in concurrent US litigation should be included.
  • The rights and obligations surrounding the execution of the Court-Determined Licence.

Additionally, the judgment delivered on confidentiality issues with implications for third-party proprietary financial information, ultimately safeguarding certain sensitive data under trade secret regulations but calling for transparency in light of the public interest and competition law concerns.


The case of Optis Cellular Technology LLC & Ors v Apple Retail UK Limited & Ors presents a comprehensive exploration of FRAND principles within the context of global SEP portfolio licensing. It underscores the UK courts’ authority to impose contractually binding FRAND licenses that transcend territorial boundaries.

The judgment also sets parameters on confidentiality, transparency, and the handling of parties’ proprietary information in public judgments. For legal professionals in the UK, the case reaffirms the evidential basis of FRAND determinations and the importance of carefully negotiated licensing, serving as a guiding precedent for future SEP-related disputes.

Related Summaries