Landmark Case Examines Director's Duties in Company Insolvency due to Tax Debts

Citation: [2023] EWHC 1784 (Ch)
Judgment on


In the legal showdown between Stephen John Hunt and Jagtar Singh, the English High Court was confronted with an intricate matter surrounding a director’s obligations, especially concerning creditor interests in scenarios where a company finds itself insolvent owing to tax debts.

Key Facts

  • The litigation emerged from a previous ruling where ICC Judge Prentis discarded the liquidator, Stephen Hunt’s, claim against Mr. Jagtar Singh.
  • At the heart of the dispute was Marylebone Warwick Balfour Management Limited’s engagement in a conditional share scheme. This scheme was crafted to facilitate payments to the head office staff, sidestepping HMRC liabilities.
  • While the scheme was operational, the Company’s liability to HMRC regarding PAYE and NIC contributions soared beyond £36 million. Consequently, by September 2005, solely the liability for NIC and accrued interest pushed the Company into a net deficit surpassing £3.5 million.
  • Subsequently, in 2013, the Company transitioned into creditors’ voluntary liquidation. The Liquidator pursued charges against previous directors, alleging breaches of fiduciary duty.
  • The pivotal legal question emanating from this appeal concerned the onset of a director’s duty to prioritize the interests of creditors, particularly when the company’s insolvency is a consequence of tax liabilities.
  • This case prompted a re-evaluation of the line between legitimate tax planning and acts that could jeopardize a company’s solvency and the resulting duties owed by directors to creditors.
  • The previous rulings on similar issues, particularly concerning the duty directors owe to creditors in potential insolvency scenarios, played a guiding role in the court’s decision-making process.


  • ICC Judge Prentis, upon evaluation, deduced that the Company maintained a fluctuating solvency status on its accounts, excluding the prospective HMRC liability.
  • The judge remained skeptical about whether the respondents should have discerned the Company’s impending insolvency. Consequently, he inferred that the insolvency test threshold wasn’t surpassed.
  • Predominantly, the judge leaned on various factors: the legitimate commercial objectives of the Scheme, the directorial belief in the Scheme’s alignment with the Company’s best interests, and the robustness of BDO’s advisory that the Scheme was structurally sound.


”Stephen John Hunt v Jagtar Singh” is a landmark case in the realm of company law and directorial duties, particularly spotlighting the nuanced balance between legitimate fiscal strategies and the safeguarding of creditor interests. As corporate structures and financial strategies evolve, the legal community will undeniably continue referencing this case when deciphering the boundaries of directorial duties in potential insolvency scenarios.

Related Summaries