Court Rules Against Chocolate City in Prepayment Dispute: Highlighting Complexities of Contractual Interpretation

Citation: [2023] EWHC 2874 (Comm)
Judgment on


In the High Court case of Chocolate City Limited v WEA International Inc, the court deliberated on whether Chocolate City had a contractual entitlement to prepay a convertible term loan facility prior to its maturity date. This commercial dispute brings to the fore several significant legal principles as the court navigates contractual intent and the nexus of related agreements. The case provides useful elucidation on how courts interpret complex loan agreements within the broader context of intertwined commercial arrangements.

Key Facts

The claimant, Chocolate City, a Nigerian music company, sought summary judgment for declaratory relief and specific performance, asserting a right to prepay a loan provided by the defendant, WEA, a member of the Warner Music group. WEA contested this claim, asserting that no such prepayment right existed. The Facility Agreement, combined with the Option Agreement and the ADA Distribution Agreement, formed the transaction’s foundation.

During the course of the transaction, Chocolate City attempted to exercise a prepayment right, which WEA refused, arguing that the loan terms did not permit prepayment. The legal dispute revolved around the interpretation of Clause 8.3 of the Facility Agreement and the correlated provisions of the Option and ADA Distribution Agreements.

The primary legal principles discussed in this case revolve around contractual interpretation. Central to this was the application of the summary of interpretative principles by Lord Hodge in Wood v Capita Insurance Services Ltd, emphasizing the importance of textualism and contextualism, considering both the wording and the commercial logic of the agreement.

The court clarifies that pre-contractual negotiations are generally inadmissible for interpretation purposes, according to the precedent set by Lord Wilberforce in Prenn v Simmonds. However, these could be considered to discern the transaction’s “genesis” and the “aim.”

WEA based its argument on the redundancy principle, proposing that parts of the Facility Agreement that appeared redundant on Chocolate City’s construction were in fact not so, having operative effect in other circumstances. This concept was nuanced by Leggatt LJ’s judgment in Merthyr (South Wales) Limited v Merthyr Tydfil County BC, stating that arguments from surplusage cannot justify a meaning that the contract, as a whole, cannot bear.

The court also dismissed the relevance of the Loan Market Association (LMA) standard form implications, which were not directly part of the factual matrix or genesis of the specific contract between the parties.


The court concluded that Chocolate City did not have the right to prepay the loan prior to the maturity date. This outcome hinged on the interpretation of the interconnected documents of the transaction. The structure and commercial purpose of the whole transaction indicate that WEA had an embedded right to decide, at the maturity date, whether to convert the outstanding loan to equity or to execute other options.

The court further considered WEA’s argument that the implied interpretation aligned with their understanding of the overall business intent of the agreements and that Chocolate City’s construction would undermine the intended value of the transaction documents.


The judgment reiterates that commercial contracts should be construed as a whole, with consideration of their language and the transaction’s commercial purpose. The court’s systematic approach emphasizes the necessity to consider not just isolated contractual clauses but also related agreements that give context to those clauses. This case underscores that even professionally drafted contracts may contain provisions that seem redundant or conflicting on their face, but when considered within the broader context of the transaction, they align with its commercial purpose. For legal professionals, the judgment serves as a reminder to exercise due diligence in ensuring that the language and drafting of interrelated contracts reflect the clear and agreed economic intentions of the parties involved.

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