Contractual Obligations and Deposits: Key Legal Principles Explored in King Crude Carriers SA v Ridgebury November LLC Case

Citation: [2023] EWHC 3220 (Comm)
Judgment on


The case of King Crude Carriers SA & Ors v Ridgebury November LLC & Ors involves complex questions of contract law, specifically relating to the obligations under an arbitration claim concerning the sale of second-hand oil tankers. Disputes arose regarding the fulfillment of conditions precedent within the signed contracts, leading to appeals on questions of law under the Arbitration Act 1996. The case offers an insightful examination of the legal principles surrounding clauses pertaining to deposits and the co-operative obligations of parties under a contract, alongside the implications of non-performance due to contingent impossibility.

Key Facts

The claims revolve around four separate but related contracts for the sale of oil tankers, under which disputes arose because the Buyers failed to lodge a deposit as security for the fulfillment of the agreement, leading the Sellers to cancel the contracts and seek recovery of the deposits. Buyers contended, per Clause 21 of the contracts, that the COVID-19 pandemic created a situation wherein they were unable to appoint their own vessel managers and thus could not fulfill certain conditions of the contracts, including lodging the deposits. This triggered two separate appeals relating to whether the failure to appoint managers relieved the Buyers of their obligations and whether Sellers had the right to claim the deposit amounts as debts due to Buyers’ non-performance.

Several legal principles underpin this case, most notably:

  1. Implied Term of Co-operation: An obligation for both parties to co-operate in the fulfillment of the contract, as seen in Lord Blackburn’s judgment in Mackay v Dick.

  2. Maxim of Wrongful Benefit: A party cannot derive benefit from his own wrongdoing. This maxim played a key role in the analysis of whether condition precedents were deemed fulfilled.

  3. Condition Precedent and Subsequent: A distinction was drawn between obligations that are contingent upon the occurrence of further specified events and those that accrue upon the fulfillment of said events.

  4. Doctrine of Deemed Fulfilment: Although not accepted as part of English law, it came under scrutiny to assess whether breach of contract could result in the assumed fulfillment of a condition precedent.

  5. Frustration and Impossibility: The principle that a contract may be voided if performance becomes impossible without fault on either party’s part.

  6. Deposits in Contract Law: The nature and purpose of deposits as earnest for the performance of contractual obligations and the consequences of a failure to pay.


The appeals led to the following conclusions:

  1. For Buyers’ appeal, it was decided that the obligation to pay the deposit never accrued due to the non-fulfillment of a condition precedent, namely confirmation by Holman Fenwick Willan Greece, that the escrow account was open.

  2. Regarding Sellers’ appeal, a legal error was found in the majority’s decision that clause 21 of the MOA relieved Buyers from any obligations under clause 2. The implied term was deemed neither necessary nor obvious.

Consequently, the awards were set aside in part and/or remitted to the arbitrators for reconsideration in light of the High Court’s judgment, specifically addressing the issue of Sellers’ entitlement to claim the deposits as damages in the context of Buyers’ Golden Victory point.


The High Court’s judgment in this case reaffirms key established principles of contract law, notably the rejection of the doctrine of deemed fulfillment and the requirement for an express or clearly implied obligation for the cooperation of parties to a contract. The case demonstrates the court’s approach to contractual interpretation, highlighting the necessity and obviousness test for the implication of terms, the importance of clear conditions precedent to the accrual of debt, and the non-acceptance of any fictional fulfillment of obligations in English law. The decision serves as a lucid guideline for legal professionals, emphasizing the bounds of contractual obligations and remedies available when conditions precedent are left unfulfilled.

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