Court clarifies application of negligent navigation defense in breach of charterer's orders: Mercuria Energy Trading Pte v Raphael Cotoner Investments Limited

Citation: [2023] EWHC 2978 (Comm)
Judgment on


In the case of Mercuria Energy Trading Pte v Raphael Cotoner Investments Limited [2023] EWHC 2978 (Comm), the court was tasked with addressing the appeal from an arbitration award concerning the application of the US Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1936 (US COGSA), equivalent to Article IV rule 2(a) of the Hague Rules, within the context of a voyage charterparty. The key legal question revolved around whether the abovementioned legal provisions could provide a defense for a breach of charterer’s orders when a vessel unlawfully waits in territorial waters.

Key Facts

The vessel AFRA OAK, chartered by Mercuria Energy Trading Pte, was arrested by the Indonesian Navy after breaching employment orders to wait in Singapore Eastern Outer Port Limits (EOPL) but instead anchored illegally in Indonesian territorial waters. The Master’s decision resulted in an eight-month detention, leading to substantial claims and counterclaims between the Owner and the Charterer. The Tribunal, comprised of esteemed experts in maritime law, determined that the Master had not exercised good navigation and seamanship, which led to the failure to comply with the Charterer’s employment orders.

The analysis of this case pivots on the interplay between the obligations of the carrier under a charterparty and the protections offered by the Hague Rules in cases of navigational fault. Notably, the Hague Rules’ negligent navigation defense, found in Section 4(2)(a) of US COGSA and Article IV rule 2(a) of the Hague Rules, becomes a pivotal aspect of the debate.

The case sheds light on several core principles:

  1. Charterer’s Right to Employment Orders: Define the contractual right of a charterer to direct the employment of the vessel, which includes decisions on the vessel’s route and speed.

  2. Seaworthiness and Due Diligence: Address the responsibilities both of ensuring that a vessel is seaworthy and of exercising due diligence in preparing a vessel to undertake an order.

  3. Navigational Fault Exception: Discuss when an act, neglect, or default of the master in the navigation or management of the ship may be invoked as a defense under the protective provisions of US COGSA or the Hague Rules.

  4. Compliance with Legal Norms: Emphasize that a vessel is required to comply with local laws and international agreements such as the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS).

  5. The Master’s Discretion in Seamanship: Examine the extent to which a master’s judgment on matters of seamanship can justify the failure to obey charterer’s orders, potentially engaging the protection of the Hague Rules’ exception.

  6. Breach of Charterparty: Scrutinize the circumstances in which a charterparty is breached, specifically the non-compliance with employment orders.


The Tribunal concluded that the master’s decision to anchor the vessel in Indonesian waters was a breach of the Charterer’s Order and constituted negligent navigation or substandard seamanship, ultimately engaging the protection offered by Section 4(2)(a) of US COGSA. The ruling highlighted the distinct nature of errors in the execution of employment orders vis-à-vis errors in the navigation or management of the vessel. This nuanced interpretation enables the extension of the negligent navigation defense to instances where breach of employment orders involves an error in navigation or seamanship.


The judgment of Mercuria Energy Trading Pte v Raphael Cotoner Investments Limited elucidates key legal principles, most notably around the scope of the negligent navigation defense in the context of breaches of charterparty employment orders. It demonstrates judicial restraint in expanding the application of the defense, confining it to cases where non-compliance with the orders are due to errors in navigation or the exercise of seamanship. The decision affirms the autonomy of the charterer’s orders as part of the vessel’s employment and underlines the importance of compliance with them, though acknowledging that the master’s duties in navigation may provide a legitimate defense against liability under specific circumstances.

In sum, the legal principles of seaworthiness, due diligence, and the limitations of the Hague Rules defense have been cautiously navigated by the High Court, striking a prudent balance between the charterer’s expectations and the realities of vessel management, without broadly expanding the contours of the navigational fault exception.

Related Summaries