High Court Grapples with Competing Dispute Resolution Clauses in Tyson International v GIC Re Case

Citation: [2024] EWHC 236 (Comm)
Judgment on


The case of Tyson International Company Limited v GIC Re, India, Corporate Member Limited presents an intriguing scenario where the High Court of Justice is asked to determine which of two competing dispute resolution clauses would govern a reinsurance contract. The case delves into the complexities of interpreting contractual terms within the context of the London insurance market practices and the issuing of subsequent contractual documents that seemingly conflicted with earlier agreements. This article aims to dissect the key topics in the case and elucidate the legal principles applied by CHRISTOPHER HANCOCK KC, sitting as a Judge of the High Court.

Key Facts

Tyson International Company Limited (TICL) and GIC Re, India were party to a reinsurance contract. A dispute arose where each party invoked a different dispute resolution clause – TICL sought to rely on an exclusive English court jurisdiction clause found in the earlier Slip Policy/Market Reform Contract (MRC), while GIC invoked a New York arbitration agreement contained in the subsequent Facultative Certificates. TICL applied ex parte for an interim anti-suit injunction to restrain GIC from initiating or continuing proceedings regarding the reinsurance contract except in the English courts. GIC countered, seeking to set aside the injunctive relief and backing a New York-seated arbitration.

The legal discussion in this case pivots around three central themes:

  1. The Doctrine of Supersession: The court scrutinized whether the Facultative Certificates superseded the earlier Slip Policy/MRC, thus giving precedence to the New York arbitration clause.

  2. Construction of the “Hierarchy” or “Confusion” Clause: A critical point of contention was the interpretation of the confusion clause in the Facultative Certificate, which stated that the Slip Policy/MRC would “take precedence over reinsurance certificate in case of confusion.”

  3. Exclusive Jurisdiction versus Arbitration Clause: The case required the court to evaluate how to reconcile the existence of both an English jurisdiction clause and a New York arbitration clause within the same reinsurance framework.

The legal principles also hinge on established case law such as the “high degree of probability” test for granting an interim anti-suit injunction outlined in the Bankers Trust Co v PT Mayora Indah and further elucidated upon in Midgulf International Ltd v Groupe Chimische Tunisien. This test requires the claimant to demonstrate a high probability that the exclusive jurisdiction agreement is binding and the “strong reasons” principle that shifts the burden onto the defendant to show compelling reasons against granting anti-suit injunction.

Additionally, case management principles allow the court to defer the decision on the final relief, opting for a speedy trial on contentious factual points, as drawn from the approach in Midgulf.


The judge’s interim conclusion favored TICL’s interpretation of the hierarchy clause, thus giving effect to the English court jurisdiction provision within the Slip Policy/MRC over the subsequent New York arbitration clause in the Facultative Certificate. Consequently, the interim anti-suit injunction granted earlier was continued but not made final, with the Court suggesting there could be room for the resolution of any challenge by GIC to the jurisdiction of the English Court or an application under s.9 of the Arbitration Act 1996.


In the case of Tyson International v GIC Re, the Court demonstrated the nuanced application of contract law principles to arrive at an interim conclusion that favored upholding the jurisdiction clause within the English Courts as opposed to a conflicting arbitration agreement. The Court took a pragmatic approach, contemplating the need for further evidence and resolution of a jurisdiction challenge by GIC. The outcome underscores the legal complexities inherent in contract dispute resolution, especially within the realm of London market insurance practices, while also affirming the Court’s discretion in managing concurrent dispute resolution mechanisms in cross-border contracts. The case awaits final resolution pending further proceedings but offers a compelling exposition of the current judicial stance on the interplay between jurisdiction clauses and arbitration agreements.

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