Court finds sexual abuse allegations against father substantiated in Birmingham City Council v M & Ors [2023] EWHC 3312 (Fam)

Citation: [2023] EWHC 3312 (Fam)
Judgment on


In the matter of Birmingham City Council v M & Ors [2023] EWHC 3312 (Fam), the court was faced with determining serious allegations of sexual abuse brought against the respondents F (the Father) and of a failure to protect by M (the Mother). The case delves into the evidentiary considerations of such allegations and the implications for the welfare of the children concerned. This analysis will examine the legal principles applied by the court to reach its conclusions.

Key Facts

The case concerns care proceedings involving two children, along with serious allegations by their half-siblings TT and SS that they were sexually abused by F. There were also allegations of physical abuse and possibly domestic abuse within the household, largely posited by the children and supported by testimonies from other involved parties. The judgment is extensive, consisting of 177 paragraphs, which meticulously traverse through the allegations, evidence, and legal principles.

The court applied several key legal principles in adjudicating this case, which include the following:

  1. Burden of Proof: The responsibility to demonstrate that the alleged events occurred lies with the applicant, in this case, the Birmingham City Council. The standards are clearly outlined in civil law and require proof on the balance of probabilities.

  2. Standard of Proof: If the local authority proves that an event more than likely occurred, it is accepted as fact for the proceedings. Any event not proven is treated as having not occurred, following the binary system of evidence interpretation.

  3. Evidence Over Speculation: The court must make decisions based on concrete evidence rather than conjecture or hearsay. This also involves drawing reasonable inferences from accepted evidence.

  4. Consideration of Lies: As per R v Lucas [1981] QB 720, the court exercises caution in attaching significance to lies told by a party. The motive behind lying is a crucial aspect and does not necessarily discredit all other evidence provided by the individual.

  5. ABE Guidelines: Achieving Best Evidence (ABE) guidelines are crucial when dealing with testimonies of children, especially in sexual abuse matters. The court is mindful of following these procedures strictly to avoid undermining the reliability of testimony. Departure from ABE guidelines necessitates careful scrutiny, as highlighted in Re P (Sexual Abuse - Finding of Fact Hearing) [2019] EWFC 27 and Re JB (A Child) (Sexual Abuse Allegations) [2021] EWCA Civ 46.

  6. Welfare Checklist: In deciding the welfare outcome for the children, the court employs the checklist in the Children Act 1989, ensuring the best interests of the children are central to its decision-making process.


Upon application of these principles, the court found the sexual abuse allegations against F substantiated on the balance of probabilities. It was determined that M failed to protect the children from harm. Physical abuse by the parents was also held to be proven based on the children’s testimonies, notwithstanding some inconsistencies and concerns regarding the manner in which disclosures were elicited from the child, BB.

The court made no findings in regard to the allegations of domestic abuse due to its complexity and the non-essential nature to the determination of relevant orders.

Consequently, the court concluded it was in the children’s best interests to be subject to a care order and remain in foster care. Contact arrangements were agreed to be kept under review by the Local Authority, highlighting the court’s preference for a fluid, adaptive approach to welfare-based outcomes rather than rigid injunctions.


In Birmingham City Council v M & Ors [2023] EWHC 3312 (Fam), Mrs Justice Lieven applied well-established legal principles to navigate the complex and sensitive allegations of abuse. The judgment underscores the court’s careful consideration of the children’s testimonies, the need for adherence to ABE guidelines, and the balance of probabilities standard. This approach, along with the court’s cognizance of the psychological impact of the evidence on children, resulted in findings that have significant implications for child protection jurisprudence and the welfare of the children involved. The case exemplifies the legal system’s commitment to ensuring that the welfare of minors remains the paramount concern in family law proceedings.

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