High Court Rules Vehicle Owner Liable for Negligence in Horsebox Trailer Accident

Citation: [2024] EWHC 322 (KB)
Judgment on


In the High Court of Justice King’s Bench Division case, Veronica Marie Smith v Alan Clarke, Deputy High Court Judge Clare Padley delivered a judgment on a preliminary issue of liability arising in two linked claims for damages. This case offers insight into the legal principles surrounding negligence in the context of a motor vehicle accident, focusing on duty, breach, causation, and evidential burdens. The judgment draws on established case law to determine liability, and explores key legal concepts such as standard of care, inference of negligence, the relevance of MOT certificates, and causation due to overloading.

Key Facts

The accident in question occurred when a trailer became detached from a horsebox, due to the failure of bolts connecting them, resulting in severe injuries and one fatality. The Defendant, Mr. Alan Clarke, was the owner and driver of the horsebox, and negligence was alleged due to the improper maintenance and overloading of the towing assembly. The case examined whether the standard of care expected of a vehicle owner had been breached and whether the Defendant had been negligent in his actions preceding the accident.

The judgment applied several legal principles including:

  1. Duty of Care: As a road user and vehicle owner, the Defendant carried a duty to ensure his vehicle was roadworthy and not likely to cause damage or injury.

  2. Standard of Care: The expected standard of care is that of a prudent and reasonable individual in the Defendant’s position, which includes considering the nature and seriousness of any potential risk, the purpose of the act, and practicability of further precautions.

  3. Negligence and Breach of Duty: Negligence arises from a failure to meet the standard of care, which in this case involved ensuring the vehicle’s assembly did not present a risk to others through proper maintenance and avoidance of overloading.

  4. Inference of Negligence: Under the concept of ‘res ipsa loquitur’, negligence in motor vehicle accidents may be inferred if a vehicle’s unsafe condition is likely a result of the owner’s failure to take reasonable care.

  5. The Role of MOT Certificates: MOT certificates do not relieve the owner of the vehicle from common law duties to maintain the vehicle properly.

The case law referenced includes Barkway v South Wales Transport, Henderson v Henry E Jenkins & Sons, Rees v Saville, and Worsley v Hollins, which guided the principles surrounding the responsibilities of vehicle owners, inference of negligence, and the importance of adhering to manufacturer’s guidance.


The court found that the Defendant negligently failed to maintain the tow assembly in a safe condition. He did not regularly check the torque of the bolts as per the manufacturer’s instructions, nor did he consider the impacts of overloading the trailer. The Defendant’s reliance on a recent MOT was also deemed irrelevant in this context, as the MOT did not cover the particular maintenance needed for the towing assembly.

Judge Padley concluded that the Defendant’s breaches of duty regarding improper tightening of the bolts and overloading beyond the coupling assembly’s D-value both contributed to the accident. As a result, the Defendant was found liable for the consequences of the accident.


In Veronica Marie Smith v Alan Clarke, the judgment reinforces the principle that vehicle owners hold a duty of care to maintain their vehicles and towing assemblies to a standard that reasonably ensures the safety of others. This case illustrates the limitations of MOT certificates in discharging common law duties and reaffirms that vehicle owners cannot rely solely on them to excuse failures in vehicle maintenance. The assessment of legal responsibilities hinges on practical and knowledgeable adherence to safety protocols. Vehicle owners must proactively engage in the proper upkeep of their vehicles, particularly regarding aspects that could critically affect the safe operation of the vehicle and other road users.

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