Court Balances Enforcement and Leniency in Pinewood Technologies Asia Pacific Limited v Pinewood Technologies PLC: Key Decisions on Extension of Time and Strike-Out Application

Citation: [2024] EWHC 580 (TCC)
Judgment on


In the case of Pinewood Technologies Asia Pacific Limited v Pinewood Technologies PLC [2024] EWHC 580 (TCC), the Technology and Construction Court (TCC) deliberated on two primary applications: one from the Defendant seeking the strike-out of the Claimant’s claim due to non-payment of a judgment debt and one from the Claimant requesting an extension of time to pay the judgment debt. This article analyzes the legal principles applied in this case and connects them to the discussed topics, providing clarity on the key decisions made by the Court.

Key Facts

The Claimant, appointed as an exclusive reseller by the Defendant, alleged that the Defendant breached obligations under the Reseller Agreements. The Claimant sought damages, claiming approximately USD 312.7 million for incurred costs and lost profits. The Defendant countered the claims and applied for reverse summary judgment based on exclusion and capping clauses in the Reseller Agreements. After summary judgment by Joanna Smith J, only the Incurred Costs Claim remained. The Defendant counterclaimed for outstanding fees, resulting in the Claimant being ordered to pay the judgment debt (“the October Order”).

Subsequent to the judgment, the Claimant unsuccessfully sought appeal and failed to pay the judgment debt by the due date, leading to the present applications. The Defendant pursued an unless order that would strike out the Claimant’s claim should the judgment debt remain unpaid, while the Claimant sought extension for payment citing lack of assets and reliance on third-party funding.

The Court applied several established legal principles:

  1. Denton Test: The Denton test ([2014] EWCA Civ 906) was utilized to determine the appropriateness of granting an extension of time. This test involves three stages:

    • Identifying the seriousness of the breach,
    • Understanding why the default occurred,
    • Considering all circumstances of the case.
  2. Compliance and Enforcement: The case highlighted the importance of compliance with court orders and the Courts’ enforcement powers essential to maintain confidence in the justice system. It referenced Michael Wilson & Partners Ltd v Sinclair ([2017] EWHC 2424 (Comm)) to outline principles relevant to debarring orders.

  3. Article 6 ECHR: The European Convention on Human Rights’ Article 6, concerning the right to a fair trial, was considered, as debarring orders can impede access to justice.

  4. Hadkinson Principles: The Hadkinson principles, as outlined in de Gafforj v de Gafforj ([2018] EWCA Civ 2070), were applied, highlighting conditions required to impose a debarring order which affects a party’s ability to pursue a case due to contempt.

  5. Evidence of financial resources: The absence of detailed evidence concerning the Claimant’s financial situation to pay the judgment debt was crucial, following the principle that impecuniosity must be properly evidenced (as emphasized in Michael Wilson & Partners Ltd v Sinclair and other cases).

  6. Security for Costs: The Court also highlighted the procedural importance of using security for costs appropriately, and any variation sought by the claimant should be specifically applied for.


The Court granted the Claimant an extension of time to pay until 1 June 2024. It found the Claimant’s explanation for non-payment unconvincing yet decided to allow the extension given the absence of significant prejudice to the Defendant. The Court additionally ruled for an unless order as sought by the Defendant, with the operative date coinciding with the granted extension, underlining compliance with the court order as fundamental to the proceedings.


In Pinewood Technologies Asia Pacific Limited v Pinewood Technologies PLC, the Court contemplated the rigorous enforcement of its orders against the practical struggles of a party demonstrating financial constraints. The principles applied serve as a testament to the balance that courts strive to uphold between ensuring compliance with court orders to maintain judicial integrity and allowing some degree of leniency in the face of acceptable argument to grant extensions before resorting to the last resort of striking out a claim. The decision underscores the importance of providing detailed and cogent evidence of impecuniosity when seeking leniency from the Court and the priority placed on honoring court orders as part of upholding the rule of law.

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