Tribunal Upholds FCA's Immediate Effect Requirements on Nvayo Limited, Emphasizes Consumer Protection and AML Compliance

Citation: [2024] UKUT 35 (TCC)
Judgment on


The decision in the case of Nvayo Limited v The Financial Conduct Authority [2024] UKUT 35 (TCC), addresses the legal principles surrounding the imposition of immediate effect requirements on a regulated firm by the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) and the subsequent suspension application by the firm. This article critically analyzes the Upper Tribunal Judge Swami Raghavan’s application of relevant legal principles and the Tribunal Procedure (Upper Tribunal) Rules 2008 in the context of the financial services regulation, consumer protection, and anti-money laundering compliance.

Key Facts

Nvayo Limited, an e-money institution, underwent regulatory scrutiny following the arrest of its ultimate beneficial owner, Mr. Scanlon, by the US Department of Justice. The FCA issued Supervisory Notices imposing requirements to halt new business and impose restrictions on the firm’s assets, citing concerns with Nvayo’s anti-money laundering processes and Mr. Scanlon’s fitness as a person with a qualifying holding. Nvayo appealed these notices to the Upper Tribunal and sought the suspension of the FCA’s requirements pending the determination of the reference to the Tribunal.

The case revolved around the legal principles enshrined in the Tribunal Procedure (Upper Tribunal) Rules 2008, specifically Rule 5(5) which concerns the suspension of a regulator’s decision pending appeal. The Tribunal’s task was to determine if lifting the FCA’s requirements would not prejudice the interests of any individuals protected by the notice or adversely affect market integrity or the stability of the UK financial system.

The Tribunal referred to precedent cases, notably Sussex Independent Financial Advisers Limited v FCA [2019] UKUT 228 (TCC), in affirming that the merits of the firm’s appeal were not at issue in a suspension application. Instead, the focus was on whether there was a significant risk to consumers beyond that of a firm conducting business in a broadly compliant manner. The applicant firm bore the burden of demonstrating that lifting the suspensions would not pose such a risk.

The Tribunal also considered the Money Laundering, Terrorist Financing and Transfer of Funds (Information on the Payer) Regulations 2017 (MLRs), which impose due diligence and monitoring obligations on firms to prevent money laundering and terrorist financing.


The Tribunal refused Nvayo’s application for suspension for several reasons. Firstly, they found that the ongoing status of Mr. Scanlon as the ultimate beneficial owner, given the serious criminal allegations against him relevant to e-money transmission, was a significant concern. Secondly, the impending closure of Nvayo’s safeguarding bank account presented a risk of financial instability for the firm and a potential for consumer harm if new business were allowed. Lastly, deficiencies identified in Nvayo’s AML compliance processes through the review of ten client files indicated a risk to the public that could not be mitigated without the ongoing oversight of a Skilled Person.


The Nvayo Limited v The Financial Conduct Authority case underscores the Tribunal’s rigorous approach in balancing the interests of regulated firms with the statutory objectives of consumer protection and market integrity. The refusal to suspend the FCA’s requirements reflects a prioritization of these objectives and affirmance of the need for detailed evidence when a firm seeks to challenge regulatory decisions. Importantly, the decision demonstrates that the presence of unresolved serious allegations, particularly in relation to the control and ownership of a firm, along with potential non-compliance with AML regulations, weighs heavily against the suspension of supervisory notices. This analysis serves as guidance for legal professionals in understanding the nuanced interactions between regulatory compliance, consumer interests, and the legal framework governing financial institutions.

In conclusion, the decision reinforces the principle that regulatory decisions, made in the interest of the public and financial system, are to be upheld unless detailed evidence can demonstrate that such decisions do not warrant the concern they address.

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