Court of Appeal Rules Against Insurer Axis in Professional Indemnity Case, Upholding Key Legal Principles on Exclusion and Aggregation Clauses

Citation: [2024] EWCA Civ 7
Judgment on


In the case of Axis Speciality Europe SE v Discovery Land Company LLC & Ors, the Court of Appeal addressed two key legal issues: the application of an exclusion clause in a professional indemnity insurance policy and the treatment of multiple claims under an aggregation clause. The appeal, decided on January 15th, 2024, upheld the trial judge’s conclusions that the insurer, Axis, could neither rely on the exclusion clause to refuse indemnity nor consolidate the claims under the aggregation clause to impose a per-claim limit on liability.

Key Facts

The underlying dispute originated from the misappropriation of funds by a solicitor, Mr. Stephen Jones, from his firm’s client account, which was supposed to be used for the purchase of Taymouth Castle. Jones’s actions led to claims against Axis under the Third Party (Rights Against Insurers) Act 2010, as the entities Jones was associated with became insolvent. Axis sought to rely on an exclusion clause and an aggregation clause contained within the insurance policy to limit its exposure to the claims.

The case analyses two principal areas:

1. Exclusion Clause for Dishonest Conduct:

The court deliberated on whether Axis could invoke Clause 2.8 of the policy to exclude liability arising from Jones’s dishonest acts. The clause stipulated that no dishonest act by an insured individual could be imputed to the firm unless all directors or members condoned the act. The court navigated the concept of “condonation,” which implies acceptance or tacit approval of dishonest behaviour. This required a subjective evaluation of the directors’ awareness of and reaction to the dishonest actions. The appellate court affirmed the lower court’s judgment that the test for “blind eye” knowledge was not met, as Mr. Prentice, another member/director of the entities, did not condone Jones’s actions.

2. Aggregation Clause:

The Court of Appeal confirmed the trial judge’s analysis of the aggregation clause, addressing whether multiple claims could be treated as one for indemnity purposes. Relying on the Supreme Court’s interpretation in AIG Europe Ltd v Woodman, the evaluation focused on the degree of interconnection among the matters or transactions. The court concluded that the claims did not arise from “similar acts or omissions in a series of related matters or transactions” as required for aggregation under the policy. Each claim pertained to distinctly separate transactions without the requisite interconnection.


The court dismissed Axis’s appeal on both grounds. On the issue of the exclusion clause, it was held that Mr. Prentice did not condone the dishonest conduct of Mr. Jones, and as such, the behavior could not be attributed to the insured firm. Regarding the aggregation clause, the court found that there was no substantial similarity between the acts giving rise to the separate claims and these acts did not form part of a series of related transactions. Thus, the claims could not be aggregated to limit Axis’s overall liability.


The Court of Appeal’s decisions in Axis Speciality Europe SE v Discovery Land Company LLC & Ors underscore critical principles regarding the interpretation and application of exclusion and aggregation clauses in insurance contracts, particularly in professional indemnity contexts. The court adhered to a close examination of the subjective awareness and responses of individuals regarding condoned dishonest behavior, and required a nuanced, fact-sensitive evaluation when determining the relatedness of transactions for the purposes of aggregation. These rulings reinforce the protective intent of indemnity insurance in safeguarding clients against professional malpractice while ensuring that insurers cannot unduly limit their liability exposure through broad interpretations of exclusion and aggregation clauses.

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