Court of Appeal Emphasizes Procedural Fairness in Immigration Dependency Case

Citation: [2023] EWCA Civ 1455
Judgment on


In the case of Dahir Elmi Abdi & Ors v Entry Clearance Officer, the Court of Appeal (Civil Division) had to scrutinize whether the process undertaken by the First-tier Tribunal (FtT) and subsequently the Upper Tribunal (UT) conformed to the standards of procedural fairness and whether the decisions made were founded on the correct legal principles and rules. This case probes into the issue of dependency under the Immigration (European Economic Area) Regulations 2016 and the financial support provided by an EEA national to relatives residing outside the UK.

Key Facts

The appellants, a brother and sister duo and the latter’s son, sought to join their eldest brother, a Dutch national residing in the UK, by applying for EEA Family Permits. The applications were refused on the grounds that the appellants had not sufficiently demonstrated their financial dependency on their Dutch national brother. Both the First-tier Tribunal (FtT) and subsequently the Upper Tribunal (UT) dismissed their appeals. The key contention was whether Ashkir, their brother, was indeed the source of their financial support and whether this support constituted material qualifications for the “dependent” status as required by the Immigration Regulations.

Procedural Fairness

A cornerstone of the appeal was the concept of procedural fairness. It was vital to determine whether the appellants were given an opportunity to address matters pivotal to the FtT’s decision, particularly when these matters were neither raised by the respondent nor anticipated in the original proceedings. This concept relates closely to ensuring all parties have an opportunity to speak before decisions affecting their rights or interests are made. The case references encompassed HA v Secretary of State for the Home Department (No 2) [2010], which articulates that what constitutes procedural fairness is context-dependent and fact-sensitive. The Surendran Guidelines reaffirm this concept, mandating that credibility issues not originally in contention need to be addressed at the hearing.

The Requirement to Challenge Evidence

The principle that evidence should be challenged at hearings if it is to be rejected, resonates from TUI UK Ltd v Griffiths [2023]. This aligns with ensuring the integrity of the court process and the rights of witnesses and parties involved.

Dependency Under Immigration Regulations

The parameters for defining “dependency” under the Immigration (European Economic Area) Regulations 2016 cover the needs of applicants to receive material support from an EEA national to meet essential living needs. This is not limited to financial contributions but could also extend to indirect support which enables the sponsor to relay funds to dependents.


The Court of Appeal concluded that the appellants were treated unfairly at the FtT, as the critical reasons for dismissing their appeal—relating to the source of their funds—had not been challenged in previous hearings or responses. This constituted a violation of procedural fairness, as the appellants were deprived of the opportunity to respond to this pivotal issue. Consequently, the court overturned the UT’s decision and remitted the matter back to the First-tier Tribunal for reconsideration.


In Dahir Elmi Abdi & Ors v Entry Clearance Officer, the Court of Appeal illuminated the paramount importance of procedural fairness in the adjudication process, especially in immigration cases where the rights of individuals to join family members in the UK are at stake. It underscored the necessity for tribunals to refrain from basing decisions on issues that have not been addressed by all parties involved. This case also clarifies aspects of the definition of “dependency” under the Immigration Regulations, which go beyond mere financial transfers to encompass the material support structure that enables such transfers. The decision reflects a systematic approach to safeguarding fairness and justice in the judicial process.

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