Court of Appeal Clarifies Interpretation of Warranties and Notice Requirements in Share Purchase Agreement Dispute

Citation: [2023] EWCA Civ 1284
Judgment on


The case of Decision Inc Holdings Proprietary Limited & Anor v Stephen Garbett & Anor [2023] EWCA Civ 1284 is a significant judgment from the Court of Appeal that addresses vital principles related to the interpretation and application of warranties within a share purchase agreement. The court analyzed the meaning of “prospects” in the context of a warranty, the requirement for a claimant to define issues and plead its case, and the adequacy of notice of claim in accordance with the terms of the agreement.

Key Facts

The dispute arose from an alleged breach of a share purchase agreement (SPA), whereby the defendants (sellers) were accused of breaching warranties by failing to disclose a material adverse change in turnover and prospects of the company being sold. The defendants had provided various financial documents to the claimants (buyers) during negotiations. After the sale, the claimants alleged that those documents had not accurately reflected the company’s financial prospects and that the defendants had breached warranties set forth in the SPA.

At first instance, the judge found for the claimants based on the interpretation that “prospects” were associated with EBITDA and that there had been a material adverse change in this regard. The defendants appealed, primarily arguing that the judge had erred in his interpretation of “prospects” and that the judgment did not reflect the claim as pleaded or argued.

Interpretation of Warranties

The Court of Appeal found that the trial judge erred in his interpretation of the Prospects Warranty. The judge should have compared the company’s “prospects” at the time of the accounts’ date with those at the date of the agreement. Instead, he compared the “expectation that a reasonable buyer would have had” to the “actual” position at the date of the agreement, incorrectly equating “prospects” with EBITDA for a specific year.

Adherence to Pleadings

UK civil litigation emphasizes the importance of parties clearly identifying issues so they can be adequately addressed. However, the judge decided the case based on an approach not espoused by the claimants either in their pleadings or submissions, violating this principle.

Adequacy of Notice of Claim

The SPA required the claimants to provide written notice summarizing the nature of each individual claim and, where reasonably practicable, the amount claimed. The court concluded that the notice failed to sufficiently outline the amount claimed specifically for the breach of the Prospects Warranty, rendering it defective, and thus, the claimants could not pursue liability based on it.

Remittal for Re-Trial

Given the defects in the notice and the departure from the pleaded case, a re-trial was deemed unnecessary, as the claimants would not be entitled to pursue their claim for a breach of the Prospects Warranty.


The Court of Appeal allowed the appeal, reversed the trial judge’s findings, and dismissed the claim. The Court also granted judgment in the defendants’ favor regarding their counterclaim for the payment of £787,000, which both parties agreed was the preferred outcome over the issue of shares.


The Court of Appeal’s decision underscores the necessity for claimants to strictly adhere to their pleadings, provide clear and specific notice of claims according to their contractual obligations, and the requirement for courts to maintain fidelity to the issues as framed by the parties. This ruling reaffirms the balance between autonomy in contract and the procedural rigor for which the UK civil justice system is known. It serves as a cautionary tale for legal professionals regarding the specificity required in both the drafting and enforcement of contractual warranties, and the critical role of pleadings and notice provisions in litigation.

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