Appellate Court Allows Amendment of Claim Value in Fleming v Zurich Insurance PLC, Highlighting Judicial Balance in Case Management

Citation: [2023] EWCA Civ 1417
Judgment on


The case of Jason Fleming v Zurich Insurance PLC ([2023] EWCA Civ 1417) serves as a noteworthy illustration of appellate scrutiny in case management decisions, particularly concerning the amendment of claim values in personal injury litigation. This analysis offers legal professionals insights into the Court of Appeal’s approach to evaluating discretion exercised by a Deputy District Judge (DDJ) and the application of legal principles pertaining to such discretionary judgments.

Key Facts

The appellant, Jason Fleming, sought to increase the value of his personal injury claim post-accident against Zurich Insurance PLC, the insurer of the driver at fault. Initially regarded as a straightforward ‘whiplash injury’ case, Fleming’s claim took an unexpected turn when further medical reports from a consultant orthopaedic surgeon indicated more severe and lasting injuries than initially diagnosed, transforming the claim significantly.

Delays and complications, including challenges in obtaining necessary medical reports and MRI scan access, resulted in a sequence of extensions and case management adjustments. Fleming, acting largely as a litigant in person (with assistance from his uncle, Leander Fleming, as his ‘McKenzie friend’), encountered procedural obstacles, finally culminating in a late application to amend the value of his claim—a pivotal point of the judicial examination in this appeal.

The legal principles scrutinized in this case include:

  1. Case Management Discretion: The appellate court reiterated the well-established principle that case management decisions afford substantial discretion to the trial judge. However, an appellate court will intervene where it is shown that the decision was influenced by irrelevant considerations, relevant considerations were disregarded, or the decision was irrational (Jalla v Shell International Trading and Shipping Co Ltd [2021] EWCA Civ 1559).

  2. Amendment of Pleadings: Appellate courts usually respect decisions on late amendments of pleadings, following the guidance in Quah Su-Ling v Goldman Sachs International [2015] EWHC 759 (Comm).

  3. Treatment of Litigants in Person: Although the courts recognized the need for litigants in person to adhere to the rules of court, they were mindful of the challenges faced by such individuals, especially when it came to technical matters like the timings of applications to amend claims.

  4. Impact on Trial Dates: The Court dealt with considerations surrounding the preservation of trial dates, paralleling the need for efficient litigation with the rights of a litigant to pursue a claim reflective of the true extent of their loss, particularly where new evidence significantly transforms the prognosis and potential damages due.


The Court of Appeal allowed the appeal, implicitly criticizing the DDJ’s failure to properly weigh the critical considerations surrounding the timing of the amendment application and its inevitable impact on the trial date. Crucially, the DDJ failed to account for the fact that the timing of the application, even if made at the earliest opportunity, would not have saved the trial date following significant new medical evidence. The Court of Appeal exercised its own discretion to grant the application to increase the value of the claim, recognizing that the claimant should not be unduly penalized for delays in obtaining essential evidence that substantiated an increased claim.


The Court of Appeal’s decision underscores the imperative for judicial balance in case management—particularly in considering the implications of new evidence on claim values—while reaffirming that litigants in person must adhere to the procedural rules attendant to litigation. The case epitomizes affirmative action by the Court of Appeal in redressing a case management decision where the lower court failed to sufficiently engage with the relevant factors that would justify the late amendment of a claim. It affirms the principle that when such factors are not properly taken into account, appellate intervention is necessary to serve the interests of justice.

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