Court Rejects Appeal Reopening in Michael Wilson & Partners Ltd v JF Emmott & Ors: EWCA Civ 86 due to Lack of Merit and Exceptional Circumstances

Citation: [2024] EWCA Civ 86
Judgment on


The case of Michael Wilson & Partners Ltd v JF Emmott & Ors: EWCA Civ 86 provides a detailed insight into the court’s application of legal principles related to the correction of administrative errors, abuse of process, and the exceptional circumstances under which appeals may be re-opened. It also touches upon the significance of providing accurate and complete information to the court and the potential ramifications of failing to do so.

Key Facts

The core of the case revolves around an attempt by Michael Wilson & Partners Ltd (MWP) to resurrect a claim form, allegedly issued erroneously with an existing case number (CL 2010-000804) and associated problems including incorrect payment of the fee for issuing the claim. When MWP was directed to issue a new claim form with the correct number and fee, it objected. Consequently, the court struck out the claim form, prompting MWP to seek permission to appeal the order, which was refused by Males LJ, and eventually resulting in the application to re-open the appeal under CPR 52.30.

The case largely hinges on the application of CPR 52.30 and its stringent criteria for re-opening an appeal. Three key principles are central to the court’s decision-making process:

  1. Necessity to Avoid Real Injustice: The court emphasized that an appeal should be re-opened only if it is “necessary to re-open the final determination to avoid a real injustice.” In the context of this case (see paragraphs 57, 60), there was no substantial injustice caused to MWP by refusing to re-open the appeal.

  2. Exceptional Circumstances: Re-opening an appeal is an extraordinary step reserved for “exceptional circumstances.” The court found no such circumstances existed in this case (see paragraph 77), asserting that MWP’s claim lacked merit from the outset and that its approach was fundamentally flawed, as noted in the Judge’s previous orders and Males LJ’s refusal of permission to appeal.

  3. No Effective Alternative Remedy: An appeal can be re-opened if no alternative remedy exists. However, in this instance, the court identified that MWP had a viable alternative remedy—either by issuing fresh proceedings or through an enquiry into damages pursuant to the ECRO (Extended Civil Restraint Order) (see paragraphs 70-75).

The court also referred to the “Henderson v Henderson” rule (see paragraph 68) to emphasize that all claims should be brought forward in the same set of proceedings when they arise from the same facts, precluding ‘splitting’ claims across multiple proceedings.


The court’s comprehensive analysis ruled that re-opening the appeal was unjustified. The application was dismissed, and it was determined that MWP’s application to re-open the appeal was totally without merit. The case underscores that attempts to resurrect or introduce claims that have been previously determined or are barred by alternative remedies will not be entertained and may constitute an abuse of process.

Moreover, the court’s decision puts a spotlight on the importance of diligence and forthrightness in dealing with court procedures, rebuffing attempts to circumvent established protocols through backdoor means such as claiming administrative errors or the exploitation of procedural defects for strategic advantage.


In Michael Wilson & Partners Ltd v JF Emmott & Ors, the Court of Appeal provided a clear exposition of the principles surrounding CPR 52.30 and reinforced the high threshold for re-opening appeals. This case exemplifies the UK courts’ commitment to reserving such measures for truly exceptional cases where a failure to act would result in a significant miscarriage of justice, while simultaneously upholding the imperative for parties to follow correct procedures and act in good faith throughout litigation. The decision affirms the view that justice not only needs to be done but must be seen to have been meticulously executed in adherence to the rules of the court.

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