Court of Appeal Determines Enforceability of Loan Agreements and Guarantees with Unregulated Lenders Based on Regulatory Compliance and Loan Classification

Citation: [2024] EWCA Civ 254
Judgment on


In the case of Rajinder Kumar & Ors v LSC Finance Limited, the Court of Appeal (Civil Division) scrutinized the enforceability of loan agreements and guarantees executed by unregulated lenders. This case revolves around crucial standards set out by the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (FSMA 2000) and the Regulated Activities Order 2001, focusing on what constitutes a regulated mortgage contract and an investment property loan. The appeal also examined the admissibility of fresh evidence and introduced further grounds of appeal due to alleged inconsistencies in witness testimonies.

Key Facts

The appellants, associated with property development businesses, entered into loan agreements with LSC Finance Ltd, an unregulated lender, to fund real estate endeavors. A dispute arose when the appellants defaulted on loans tied to Pattingham land, raising questions about the enforceability of the loan agreements and the nature of guarantees. The appellants claimed that the loan agreements created an unfair relationship under the Consumer Credit Act 1974 and did not comply with FSMA 2000, rendering them unenforceable.

At the core of this appeal was the classification of the Pattingham loan agreements. If deemed regulated mortgage contracts, they would be unenforceable since LSC is not an authorized lender. However, if classified as investment property loans, as per Article 61A(6) of the Regulated Activities Order, they would escape this jurisdictional predicament.

The appeal’s ruling was fundamentally guided by the interpretation of “regulated mortgage contracts” vs. “investment property loans” under FSMA 2000 and the Regulated Activities Order. Specifically, it leaned on the definitions provided in Article 61(3) and Article 61A of the Order. A regulated mortgage contract requires credit provided to be secured by a mortgage over land intended in part for residential use. In contrast, an investment property loan must be intended for business use without the residential limitations.

Furthermore, the “business purpose” test and the declaration requirements within Article 61A(3) were pivotal. The court applied these tests factually to the time of the agreement’s inception. The lender’s protection via the statutory presumption arising from the borrower’s declaration—as long as it was in compliance with Article 61A(3)—played a significant role unless the lender had reasonable cause to doubt the borrower’s intentions.

The Court also addressed principles regarding the interpretation of guarantee clauses and interest payments, and the approach towards the admission of fresh evidence in the appeal process. The guiding principles of Ladd v Marshall (1954) were invoked, confirming that new evidence should be credible, influence the result substantially, and could not have been obtained for the initial trial with reasonable diligence.

Additionally, the case referenced Takhar v Gracefield Developments Ltd & Others [2020] AC 450, emphasizing the necessity for proving conscious, deliberate dishonesty material to the judgment in question when alleging fraud.


The Court of Appeal held that the Pattingham Loan Agreements were indeed “investment property loans,” upholding enforceability. The judge’s findings were backed by material fact and comprehensively demonstrated that the appellants intended the loans for business purposes, rather than personal residential use at the time of the agreement.

Additionally, the appellate court clarified that Clause 4.3 of the Guarantees functioned to prevent double recovery of interest and did not discharge the guarantor from all interest liability, aligning with typical contractual interpretations and commercial sense.

The application to adduce fresh evidence was denied, primarily because the new evidence did not meet the Ladd v Marshall criteria and was not directly relevant to the integral fact findings in the current case.


The Rajinder Kumar & Ors v LSC Finance Limited judgment reinforces the stringent nature of regulatory compliance for loan agreements and the strict criteria for investment property loan exemptions from regulated mortgage contracts. It underscores the importance of the ‘business purpose’ test and statutory declarations in excluding agreements from FSMA 2000 regulation. The judgment also brings to light the cautious approach the courts take in admitting fresh evidence on appeal and reiterates the high bar for fraud allegations to unsettle a trial’s findings. Legal professionals must carefully navigate these principles in determining the enforceability of financial agreements and in preparing for appeals.

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