Court of Appeal Clarifies Liability and Costs in Party Wall Dispute: Robert Taylor v Peter Jones & Anor [2024] EWCA Civ 170

Citation: [2024] EWCA Civ 170
Judgment on


In the case of Robert Taylor v Peter Jones & Anor [2024] EWCA Civ 170, the Court of Appeal (Civil Division) was tasked with adjudicating on an appeal arising from a dispute under the Party Wall etc. Act 1996. The appellant, Mr. Robert Taylor, sought to challenge awards made by a surveyor under the Act for compensation due to work he carried out that affected the adjoining owners’ properties. The key issues revolved around the determination of responsible parties for damage to property underpinned by statutory obligations and common law principles, and the calculation and appropriateness of cost awards.

Key Facts

Robert Taylor executed works in the garden of his property, which led to disputes regarding damage caused to the adjoining owners’ properties, Mr. and Mrs. Jones and Mr. Spriggs. The damages claimed were extensively debated, with pre-existing property defects playing a significant role in the case. Moreover, the method of quantifying compensation gave rise to legal contention, especially considering the mix of the property’s pre-existing defects and those purportedly caused by Taylor’s works.

The court deployed several key legal principles in their judgment:

  1. Party Wall etc. Act 1996: The Act provides a framework for addressing disputes between building and adjoining owners, including compensation for damage resulting from construction works. In applying this Act, the court discerned the liability of Taylor to compensate for damage his works had caused.

  2. Causation: The court reiterated the “but for” test in establishing factual causation for damage. Taylor’s works were found to be the factual cause of some damage to the respondents’ properties, although they also had pre-existing defects.

  3. Common Law Principles in Statutory Interpretation: When evaluating compensation under the Act, the court reviewed the relevance of common law principles to statutory language, particularly terms like “loss or damage.” These principles were recognized as offering guidance for assessing damages, as long as they do not contradict the statutory regime.

  4. Betterment Principle: This principle addresses whether claimants should have costs reduced due to improvements (‘betterment’) stemming from remedial work. The court differentiated between cases where the party had a choice in accepting betterment and received a pecuniary benefit, from those where the betterment was incidental and non-pecuniary.

  5. Costs and Successful Parties Principle: This principle is used to identify which party should be held responsible for legal costs, conventionally determined by which party has to “write the cheque” after the judgment. The court examined whether this principle should extend to cover appeals, suggesting a party improving their position in comparison to the original judgment typically forms the basis of a successful appeal concerning costs.


The Court of Appeal concluded that Taylor was not liable for the pre-existing damages to the respondents’ properties, as these defects were not caused by his garden work. The Judge’s decision to hold Taylor liable for the entire cost of the property underpinning the rear wall (including pre-existing damage) was overturned as it went beyond remedying the damage his work caused.

In terms of costs, the Court of Appeal upheld the Judge’s decision to award the respondents 75% of their costs of the County Court proceedings, rejecting the argument that the Judge erroneously identified the respondents as the successful party.


The Court of Appeal’s judgment in Robert Taylor v Peter Jones & Anor underscores the importance of precise causation analysis in determining liability under the Party Wall etc. Act 1996 and the applicability of common law principles in statutory interpretation. The court’s careful delineation between damages attributable to Taylor’s works and pre-existing defects ultimately informed the reduction of his compensation liability. However, the outcome regarding costs highlighted a more nuanced approach, taking into account the entire litigation process, including the appeal, rather than a straightforward application of who pays at the end.

Related Summaries