Court of Appeal Upholds Sentence for Serious Sexual Offences Against Children in R v AJ

Citation: [2023] EWCA Crim 1345
Judgment on


In the case of R v AJ, the Court of Appeal Criminal Division discusses the G guidelines and principles relevant to sexual offences, especially those involving children. The appellant, AJ, challenged his sentence on various grounds, including the alleged excessive nature of the sentence, double-counting of aggravating features, and a finding of dangerousness which was claimed to be unwarranted.

Key Facts

AJ was convicted of numerous sexual offences against four children, including his own daughters (C1 and C2), and two other children (C3 and C4), over several years. The sentencing judge handed down an extended determinate sentence of 14 years, comprising a custodial term of 12 years and an extended licence period of two years. The appellant sought to appeal against this sentence, contending several issues including the appropriateness of the sentence given his lack of relevant prior convictions, potential double-counting of aggravating features, and the judge’s finding that AJ was dangerous.

Several legal principles and guidelines were applied in adjudicating AJ’s appeal:

1. Sexual Offences (Amendment) Act 1992: The court reinforced the confidentiality of victims in sexual offence cases, referring to them with identifiers rather than their real names to prevent their identification as per the statutory provisions.

2. Sentencing Guidelines: The sentencing was based on the definitive guideline for sexual offences, which categorizes the level of harm and culpability to determine the appropriate sentence.

3. Aggravating Features: The Court examined whether the sentencing judge correctly identified and applied aggravating features such as the sustained occurrence of individual incidents over time, disparity of age, and the specific abuse of trust, without engaging in double-counting.

4. Assessment of Dangerousness: The principles around what constitutes a dangerous offender as per the provisions of the 2003 Act were scrutinized. This assessment involves consideration of the risk of the individual committing further offences and the potential serious harm from such offences.

5. Reduction for Lack of Relevant Previous Convictions: The Court considered whether the sentencing judge had given appropriate weighting to the defendant’s lack of relevant prior convictions.

6. Totality Principle: This principle, ensuring that a sentence reflects the total offending behaviour and protects the public, was analyzed in terms of how it was applied in AJ’s sentence.


The appeal was ultimately dismissed. The Court found that:

1. The lack of previous relevant convictions could not significantly mitigate the sentence due to the gravity and series of the offences.

2. There was no evidence of double-counting of aggravating features. Each factor was rightly categorized and considered according to the sentencing guidelines.

3. The finding of dangerousness was within the judge’s discretion based on the evidence and pre-sentence report and therefore it did not demonstrate any material error in judgment.

4. The sentence was neither harsh nor severe considering the seriousness of the offences committed over an extended period against multiple young children.


In conclusion, the court’s analysis in R v AJ affirms the careful and proper application of the legal principles surrounding sentencing in sexual offence cases. The court stressed the importance of adhering to the guidelines, appropriately considering aggravating factors and the character of the appellant, and the overarching need to safeguard children from harm. The judgment reinforces the judiciary’s inclinations to hand down stringent sentences in cases involving repeated and serious sexual offences against minors, and the reluctance to interfere with a trial judge’s discretion in determining dangerousness unless there is an identifiable error in principle or judgment.

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