Court of Appeal Examines Severity of Harm and Mitigating Factors in R v Chris Warren Sentencing Appeal

Citation: [2023] EWCA Crim 1645
Judgment on


The appellate case R v Chris Warren ([2023] EWCA Crim 1645) examines the considerations put forward in sentencing a sexual assault case by the Court of Appeal Criminal Division. The appeal involves the assessment of injury severity, mitigation factors, and the sequencing of sentencing considerations.

Key Facts

Chris Warren was convicted in the Crown Court at Sheffield for two counts of assault by penetration, in violation of section 2 of the Sexual Offences Act 2003, and sentenced to four years’ imprisonment for each count to run concurrently. The victim, having initially participated in consensual sexual intercourse with Warren, was assaulted without her consent—a fact Warren admitted to not recognizing due to his intoxication. The incident led to significant psychological and physical harms to the victim. Warren appealed the sentence, ultimately requiring the Court of Appeal to assess whether the initial judgment appropriately weighed the severity of the injuries, the mitigating factors, and sentencing guidelines.

Several legal principles underpin the appeal judgment:

  1. Severity of Harm: A dispute over the classification of the injuries as “severe” was central to the appeal. The sentencing guidelines dictate higher starting points for sentences dependent on the harm category, and psychological harm was given considerable weight in this determination.

  2. Mitigating and Aggravating Factors: The original judge correctly identified intoxication as an aggravating factor, which is consistent with the principle that voluntary intoxication does not excuse behavior, especially when it impairs the ability to recognize non-consent.

  3. Basis of Plea and Factual Matrix: A Newton hearing was deemed unnecessary as both sides presented different stances but the judge integrated the agreed facts into sentencing, which is a standard procedure to ensure sentencing is based on accurate and agreed-upon information.

  4. Sentencing Guidelines and Discount: Adequate application of the guidelines entails a sequence where the judge first sets a starting point then considers adjustments for mitigating and aggravating factors before applying a discount for guilty pleas.

  5. Restriction Order: The imposition of a restriction order, its duration, and the circumstances under which it should be applied were also examined.


The Court of Appeal found that the initial sentencing process inadequately accounted for mitigating factors alongside aggravating ones. It is noted that the mitigating factors should have been balanced against the aggravating factors more effectively before applying the discount for the guilty plea. Warren’s history of mental health issues and the delay in proceedings should have been considered earlier in the sentencing process.

The Court adjusted Warren’s sentence to three years and four months’ imprisonment after applying the 25% discount for his guilty plea to a reduced starting point. Additionally, the Court amended the open-ended restriction order to a fixed five-year term, expiring on 28th June 2028, on the grounds that the offence was a single occurrence with no further contact from the appellant to justify an indefinite order.


In conclusion, the case of R v Chris Warren clarifies the importance of carefully applying established sentencing guidelines, particularly how the severity of the harm, mitigating factors, and the sequence of applying discounts for guilty pleas can impact the final sentencing outcome. The Court of Appeal’s decision demonstrates the judiciary’s careful approach to ensure fairness and proportionality in sentencing, bearing in mind the specifics of each individual case. The alteration of the sentence and the restriction order suggests a nuanced approach taken by the judiciary in balancing the interests of justice, the rights of the appellant, and the welfare of the victim.

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