Court of Appeal Reduces Minimum Term in McSweeney Murder Case After Guilty Plea Credit Reevaluation

Citation: [2023] EWCA Crim 1250
Judgment on


The case of Jordan McSweeney v R involves the appeal against life imprisonment for murder and the concurrent sentence for sexual assault. The Court of Appeal (Criminal Division) undertakes a meticulous examination of the sentencing principles under the Sentencing Act 2020 and the pertinent aggravating and mitigating factors influencing the determination of the minimum term for a mandatory life sentence.

Key Facts

Jordan McSweeney was convicted of murder contrary to common law and sexual assault contrary to s. 3(1) of the Sexual Offences Act 2003. The sentencing judge initially imposed a life sentence with a minimum term of 38 years for the murder after a five-year credit for a guilty plea, and a concurrent four-year imprisonment for sexual assault. McSweeney’s extensive evening of assaulting and pursuing various women culminated in the brutal sexually-motivated murder of Zara Aleena. His appeal centered around the argument that the minimum term of 43 years before the credit for the guilty plea was excessive.

The legal principles centered upon the correct interpretation and application of the Sentencing Act 2020, particularly Schedule 21, which outlines general principles for determining minimum terms concerning mandatory life sentences.

Aggravating and Mitigating Factors: The court meticulously considered aggravating factors such as planning or premeditation of the sexual assault, McSweeney’s preparedness to kill, and his demeanor post-offense, including attempts to dispose of or conceal evidence. The court also examined potential mitigating factors, such as the appellant’s lack of relevant previous convictions, mental health issues, and expression of remorse.

Schedule 21: Schedule 21 of the Sentencing Act 2020 provides starting points based on the seriousness of the offense, with a whole life order for exceptionally high seriousness and lesser terms for lower degrees of seriousness.

Credit for Guilty Plea: According to the Sentencing Council Guideline on Reduction in Sentence for a Guilty Plea, the appellant’s credit for a guilty plea is limited to one-sixth or five years at maximum for murder.

Case Law References: The judgment referenced other cases, including R v Minto and R v Stewart, to guide the assessment of planning and premeditation relevance as well as the context of minimum term precedent.


The Court of Appeal, applying Schedule 21 and examining aggravating and mitigating factors, found the initial minimum term of 43 years before the credit for a guilty plea, reducing to a 38-year minimum term post-credit, to be manifestly excessive. The court concluded that a 38-year minimum term before the guilty plea credit was justified, which, accounting for the maximum five years’ credit, resulted in a reduced 33-year minimum term for the murder conviction.


In conclusion, the case reaffirms that the sentencing court must undertake a detailed analysis, ensuring that each factor’s relevance and weight are appropriately calibrated, particularly in respect to minimum terms for life sentences. Aggravating factors greatly influence sentence length, yet courts must be cautious to avoid any double counting and overestimation of their impact. The principles of the Sentencing Act 2020 and its guidelines regarding the application of credit for guilty pleas ensure a precise approach to sentencing that the Court of Appeal aptly illustrated through careful analysis and modification of McSweeney’s minimum term. The result demarcates an important reminder of the necessity to adhere strictly to statutory mandates in sentencing, fostering consistent legal application and promoting a precise and fair justice system.

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