Court Rules on Capacity and Best Interests in Surgery Consent Case

Citation: [2023] EWCOP 51
Judgment on


In the case of Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust v Y (By his litigation friend, the Official Solicitor) [2023] EWCOP 51, the Court of Protection was tasked with deliberating over issues surrounding the capacity of an individual (Mr. Y) to consent to medical treatment and whether the administration of said treatment was in his best interests. This case illustrates the application of the Mental Capacity Act 2005 (the 2005 Act) and touches upon the interplay between mental health and a patient’s autonomy in medical decisions.

Key Facts

Mr. Y, a 42-year-old male with a diagnosis of Paranoid Schizophrenia, sustained a fractured and dislocated left shoulder. He was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit following unresponsiveness and injuries discovered in the community. Subsequently, he was detained under the Mental Health Act 1983 (the 1983 Act) due to a relapse in his mental health. He did not consent to the proposed surgery, prompting the Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust to seek court intervention under the 2005 Act. Notably, the application requested the consideration of Mr. Y’s capacity to consent to surgery and, if deemed lacking capacity, whether the operation was in his best interests. Mr. Y’s brother, a consultant orthopaedic surgeon, and his father were supportive of the proposed surgery and provided their insights.

The court’s analysis was grounded in the principles of the 2005 Act, particularly Sections 1-4 concerning capacity and best interests. The court also took into account the Supreme Court’s rulings in A Local Authority v JB on the assessment of capacity and Aintree University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust v James on determining best interests, which directs a holistic approach, encompassing the patient’s medical, social, and psychological welfare.

In determining capacity, the court focused on whether Mr. Y could understand, retain, and weigh the relevant information concerning his medical treatment due to delusional beliefs caused by his Schizophrenia. It applied the single test for capacity, requiring that inability to make the decision be because of an impairment of, or a disturbance in the functioning of the mind or brain.

Regarding best interests, the court considered medical evidence, the potential consequences of non-treatment, the patients’ values and wishes, and the insights from health professionals and family members. Emphasis was placed on Mr. Y’s value of independence in lifestyle and decision-making as a significant factor in determining best interests.

The court also addressed the necessity of restraint in administering the treatment, guided by sections 5 and 6 of the 2005 Act and relevant parts of the Code of Practice. The measure was seen as a last resort to ensure Mr. Y’s safety and was to be executed by trained personnel, with observance of his dignity.


The Court of Protection concluded that Mr. Y lacked the capacity to consent to surgery due to his inability to believe the veracity of the medical information presented to him, influenced by his Paranoid Schizophrenia. Consequently, the court determined it was in Mr. Y’s best interest to undergo the proposed surgery, as it would align with his autonomous lifestyle and avoid potential loss of shoulder function and chronic pain.

The court approved the applicant’s request for the administration of the surgery with the provision that it may include proportionate physical and/or chemical restraint, necessary to facilitate the operation safely. Additionally, the court took steps to protect Mr. Y’s identity and the sensitivity of the situation by making a reporting restriction order.


This case underscores the court’s role in protecting the welfare of individuals who lack the capacity to make decisions regarding their health. By meticulously applying the principles of the Mental Capacity Act 2005, the court balanced Mr. Y’s current health needs with his long-term wellbeing and values. Through its decision, the court reinforced the notion that considering a patient’s perspective—taking into account both present wishes and fundamental values—is essential to upholding the best interests of incapacitated individuals. The ruling also emphasizes the importance of a comprehensive approach that evaluates the medical, psychological, and personal dimensions of the incapacitated person’s life.

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