Landmark Family Law Case: Court Prioritizes Child Welfare in Denial of Direct Contact and Section 91(14) Order

Citation: [2023] EWFC 202
Judgment on


The case of K v K & Ors (EWFC 2023 202) reflects an intricate family law matter pertaining to child arrangement orders, engaging critical principles surrounding child welfare, parental responsibility, and allegations of domestic abuse. This analysis scrutinizes the legal principles applied and the rationale behind the outcomes, leveraging the judgment from Her Honour Judge Gordon-Saker.

Key Facts

Mr. K (Applicant) sought contact with his three children, A (aged 14) and B and C (both aged 10), amidst allegations of domestic abuse raised by Mrs. K (Respondent 1). Following a protracted case history, beginning in 2019, a fact-finding hearing led by District Judge Capon—and subsequent Court of Appeal involvement—resulted in a rehearing where significant findings were made against Mr. K. Judge Gordon-Saker, in her judgment, alluded to previous findings indicating Mr. K’s coercive and controlling behavior, which contributed to the children’s emotional and, in B’s case, physical harm.

The current proceeding deliberates on the nature and extent of contact deemed appropriate for the children’s welfare and explores the request under section 91(14) of the Children Act 1989 to preclude Mr. K from further applications without leave of the court for three years.

The legal principles pivotal to the ruling in this case include:

  1. The paramountcy principle, as per the Children Act 1989, stipulates that the child’s welfare is the court’s predominant concern. The court must consider how decisions impact a child’s wellbeing, with careful reflection on the history of domestic abuse.

  2. The best interest of the child, a standard derived from the paramountcy principle, which guides the court to prioritize what arrangements would most benefit the child’s physical, emotional, and educational needs.

  3. The presumption of parental involvement, which is generally deemed beneficial to the child, is subject to being rebutted by evidence suggesting such involvement may lead to risk of harm.

  4. The ‘no order’ principle, which posits that the court should not intervene unless it furthers the child’s best interests, leading to the cessation of litigation if deemed detrimental to the child’s welfare.

  5. Section 91(14) of the Children Act 1989, allowing the court to prevent further applications by a parent without leave, typically invoked to restrict repetitive and unmeritorious litigation, particularly when it is likely to destabilize children’s lives.

  6. Judge Gordon-Saker references Practice Direction 12Q, concerning the specifics of implementing section 91(14) orders.


The substantial findings from this hearing led to the conclusion that only indirect contact between Mr. K and his children was in their best interests. This included letters, cards, and gifts on birthdays and Christmas, with Mrs. K providing Mr. K with more extensive updates on the children’s well-being. Direct contact was denied due to the perceived ongoing risk of harm and Mr. K’s lack of demonstrable change or insight into his harmful behavior. A section 91(14) order was made to afford the children a three-year period of respite from litigation, conditional upon any future applications for contact being subject to leave of the court.


In K v K & Ors, the court’s decision underscores the primary importance placed on child welfare within the framework of UK family law. The judgment rendered by Her Honour Judge Gordon-Saker is permeated with considerations of the children’s best interests, factoring in the complexities of the family’s history of abuse and the ongoing impact on the children. The case reinforces the court’s role in safeguarding children from further emotional harm, balancing the presumption of parental involvement with the need to protect children’s welfare. The imposition of a section 91(14) order signals a robust response to the risks associated with persistent litigation in contentious family dynamics.

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