High Court ruling emphasizes specificity in EHC Plans and rational decision-making in LS v The London Borough of Merton case

Citation: [2024] EWHC 584 (Admin)
Judgment on


The High Court’s decision in the case of LS, R (on the application of) v The London Borough of Merton [2024] EWHC 584 (Admin) touches upon several crucial legal principles relevant to English administrative law, particularly in the context of special educational needs and social care provisions. The case provides an in-depth analysis of the duties and limits of local authorities when responding to decisions made by the Special Educational Needs and Disability Tribunal (SEND Tribunal), as well as the expected standards of specificity in an Education, Health and Care Plan (EHC Plan). This article seeks to dissect the High Court’s judgment, elucidating the legal principles applied and linking them directly to the relevant segments of the case.

Key Facts

LS, a 15-year-old with severe autism and complex needs, exhibited a significant regression leading to aggressive behaviours towards family members. Following an appeal to the SEND Tribunal, the London Borough of Merton (LA) was instructed to secure a residential school placement for LS but subsequently rejected the Tribunal’s recommendations regarding a 52-week placement. The LA proposed an alternative social care provision instead. The key issues addressed in the High Court’s judgment revolve around whether the SEND Tribunal’s decision mandated a 52-week placement as part of LS’s educational provision, the lawfulness of the LA’s decision not to follow the Tribunal’s recommendations, and the specificity of the EHC Plan for LS.

Special Educational Provision vs. Social Care Provision

The court clarified the legal distinction between ‘special educational provision’ as defined under Section 21 of the Children and Families Act 2014 (CFA 2014) and ‘social care provision.’ Special educational provisions must be specified in Section F of the EHC Plan, which binds the LA by law. In contrast, social care provisions are recommended and listed in Sections H1 and H2 but do not carry the same statutory weight. The Tribunal’s decision on a 52-week placement was deemed a recommendation on social care rather than an educational provision, meaning the LA was not legally bound to comply.

Rationality and Reasonableness

The court applied the principle of rationality, referencing the two limbs of the Wednesbury unreasonableness established in Associated Provincial Picture Houses Ltd v Wednesbury Corporation [1948] 1 KB 223. It evaluated whether the LA took into account all relevant considerations and balanced them appropriately in their decision-making process. The court found that the LA’s decision-making process was flawed as it failed to adequately weigh the evidence and recommendations from the Tribunal against its own concerns, thus rendering the decision irrational.

Expectations of Specificity in EHC Plans

The judgment also elaborated on the necessity for specificity in EHC Plans, citing L v Clarke and Somerset County Council [1998] ELR 129 and London Borough of Bromley v The Special Needs Tribunal [1999] ELR 260. The court underlined that provisions in an EHC Plan, including Sections H1 and H2, must be clear and specific to ensure no ambiguity remains regarding the support required for the child’s individual needs.


The court ruled in favor of LS on two grounds:

  1. The LA’s decision dated 9 November 2023 was quashed due to a process-based failure to consider all relevant factors and appropriately balance them;
  2. The lack of specificity in the EHC Plan concerning various therapies was noted, and while the court did not make an additional order, it suggested that the LA should address this in the recast EHC Plan considering the judgment on the second ground.

Permission for judicial review was granted regarding the LA’s decision not to follow the Tribunal’s social care recommendation and the lack of specificity in the EHC Plan. However, permission was refused on the ground of whether the Tribunal had mandated a 52-week educational placement, aligning with the LA’s view that it was a matter of social care.


The High Court’s judgement in LS, R (on the application of) v The London Borough of Merton elucidates three key areas of administrative law in the context of EHC Plans— namely, the definitions and legal expectations of educational and social care provisions, the principles of rationality and Wednesbury unreasonableness in decision-making processes, and the requisite specificity in EHC Plans. The case serves as a precedent for UK legal professionals, outlining the bounds of Local Authority discretion when responding to Tribunal recommendations, the significance attributed to cogent reasoning in their decision-making, and the clear articulation required in EHC Plans to minimize ambiguity and best serve the interests of children with special educational needs.

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