High Court Case Emphasizes Importance of Clear Partnership Agreements and Reopening Settled Accounts

Citation: [2023] EWHC 3292 (Ch)
Judgment on


In the High Court decision of Robin Steve Harry Holden v David Andrew Holden & Anor, the court adjudicated on various matters concerning the dissolution of a farming partnership. Central to the dispute were issues surrounding the governing terms of the partnership and the entitlement to amend the partnership’s revenue accounts. The case brought forth several legal principles relevant to partnerships, estoppel, the interpretation of unsigned agreements, and the reopening of settled accounts.

Key Facts

The case entails a partnership dispute between three brothers, who entered into a farming partnership following the acquisition of Flint Hall Farm, which was owned as tenants in common. The brothers operated under a set of terms documented in a Meeting Note signed in 1989. However, a draft partnership deed (the “1990 Draft Deed”), proposed later, was never signed, leading to a disagreement over the governing terms of the partnership. Additionally, certain practices pertaining to salaries, interest on capital, and fuel invoicing (collectively referred to as the “Disputed Matters”), allegedly varied from the initial agreement, were challenged by the claimant brother (Robin).

Partnership at Will and Unsigned Agreements

The case reaffirms that in partnerships, even in the absence of a signed formal agreement, an unsigned draft agreement acted upon by the parties can bind them. It underlines the principle that whether there is a binding contract depends not on the subjective state of mind of the parties but on what was communicated between them, leading objectively to an intention to create legal relations (RTS Flexible Systems Ltd v Molkerei Alois Müller GmbH & Co KG).

Estoppel by Representation and Convention

The court discussed estoppel, both by representation and convention, recognizing that a party can be precluded from denying an agreed or assumed state of facts or law when another party has relied upon that agreement or assumption to their detriment, and it would be unjust to allow the initial party to resile from it (Republic of India v India Steamship; Halsbury’s Laws of England).

Reopening of Settled Accounts

Settled accounts are typically defended strongly against being reopened, except in cases of fraud or undue influence. The court generally infers that if partners are aware of and do not contest matters reflected in settled accounts, they have accepted these matters. Additionally, statutory limitations may bar the reopening of accounts after a defined period, though exceptions exist for situations involving mistakes (Limitation Act 1980, Section 23 and 32).


The court concluded that the partnership was a partnership at will, governed by the Meeting Note and the Partnership Act 1890, as the 1990 Draft Deed was never adopted. It was determined that, by signing the accounts and tax returns over many years, the brothers had signified agreement or acceptance by conduct concerning the Disputed Matters regarding interest on balances and salaries, except for the issue regarding the markup on fuel purchases, where the evidence of agreement was less clear.


The judgment in the case of Robin Steve Harry Holden v David Andrew Holden & Anor emphasizes the importance of clear and conclusive agreements in partnerships, the treatment of unsigned agreements, principles of estoppel, and the high threshold for reopening settled accounts. UK legal professionals can glean from this case the criticality of ensuring that partnership terms are unequivocally accepted and documented, and the long-reaching implications of partner consent inferred through acquiescence in practice.

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