Court Upholds Arbitration Award in Palmat NV v Bluequest Resources AG, Highlighting Limited Scope for Judicial Intervention

Citation: [2023] EWHC 2940 (Comm)
Judgment on


In the case of Palmat NV v Bluequest Resources AG, the High Court of Justice in England and Wales reviewed challenges under sections 67 and 68 of the Arbitration Act 1996. The decision provides insight into several crucial legal principles relating to the construction of contracts and the limited scope for judicial intervention in arbitration awards. This analysis aims to dissect the key legal topics discussed in the judgment and elucidate upon the principles applied by HH Judge Pelling KC.

Key Facts

The dispute arose from two interrelated agreements entered into by Palmat and Bluequest for the trading of liquid caustic soda (LCS) and aluminium. Under the LCS Agreement, Palmat was to make payment by delivering aluminium under a separate Aluminium Agreement, or alternatively, in cash if the terms regarding premiums/discounts for the aluminium were not agreed upon. Bluequest delivered the LCS, but Palmat failed to deliver aluminium or make any payment, resulting in Bluequest seeking arbitration for the payment due. The arbitral tribunal found in favor of Bluequest, leading Palmat to challenge the award on jurisdictional grounds and alleged serious irregularities under the Arbitration Act 1996.

Contractual Interpretation

The court applied established principles of contract interpretation, emphasizing the use of natural and ordinary meaning, the significance of the contract as a whole, and the commercial context. The judgment reinforced that the clear language of a contract, particularly when professionally drafted, is highly likely to be determinative in its interpretation.

Arbitration Act 1996 - Jurisdictional Challenge

Palmat’s appeal under section 67 was based on the argument that there was a single barter arrangement, thus making the separate arbitration agreement inapplicable. The court upheld that Palmat had misconstrued the transaction, ruling the LCS and Aluminium Agreements were two linked but distinct sale contracts, with an applicable arbitration clause.

Arbitration Act 1996 - Serious Irregularity Challenge

Palmat’s section 68 challenge invoked allegations of the tribunal failing to act fairly and impartially, exceeding powers, and failing to address all issues. Emphasis was placed on the high threshold for proving serious irregularity and substantial injustice. The court found that supposed common ground cited by the tribunal was not material to the dispute’s outcome, and that the tribunal’s approach was within the permissible scope of “fair and impartial”.

Award of Interest

Regarding interest awarded on arbitration and legal costs, the court identified that the tribunal strayed beyond the claim being in play at the hearing, and thus corrected the award by only setting aside the interest on legal costs, underlining the court’s conservative approach to modifying arbitral awards.


Key outcomes from the judgment included:

  • Affirming that the LCS and Aluminium Agreements were separate contracts bound by valid arbitration clauses.
  • Upholding the arbitral award in favor of Bluequest, denying Palmat’s jurisdictional challenge under section 67.
  • Rejecting Palmat’s section 68 challenge, while correcting a minor aspect of interest calculation.
  • Demonstrating the court’s reluctance to interfere with the arbitral tribunal’s conclusions unless substantial injustice could be demonstrated.


The judgment in Palmat NV v Bluequest Resources AG confirms the strength of clear contractual language and the importance of viewing agreements in their entirety and commercial context. It reinforces the restrictive stance the English courts maintain toward interfering with arbitration decisions, only intervening when a high threshold of substantial injustice is met. The case underscores the principle that arbitration, as a favored means of dispute resolution, is underpinned by finality and minimal judicial intervention, consistent with the pro-arbitration ethos of the Arbitration Act 1996.

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