Court of Appeal Upholds Life Sentence with 27-Year Minimum Term in Richard Lee Norris Murder Case

Citation: [2024] EWCA Crim 68
Judgment on


In the case of Richard Lee Norris v R [2024] EWCA Crim 68, the Court of Appeal (Criminal Division) examined an appeal against a life sentence with a minimum term of 27 years for murder. The case delves into the assessment of aggravating and mitigating factors in sentencing and the application of Schedule 21 of the Sentencing Act 2020, as well as other legal principles including the significance of the crime location and the state of intoxication of the accused.

Key Facts

Richard Lee Norris, aged 54, was convicted of murder in the Crown Court following an attack on Marcus Tott, who was in a volatile relationship with Marie Edge. Norris stabbed Tott, who was asleep in his bed, resulting in a fatal chest wound. Following his conviction, Norris was sentenced to life imprisonment with a minimum term of 27 years. Norris appealed against the sentence, arguing that the Judge inappropriately weighed aggravating factors against the mitigation present.

Several legal principles and guidelines were integral to the case, including:

  1. Aggravating and Mitigating Factors: The court analyzed aggravating and mitigating factors as per Schedule 21 to the Sentencing Act 2020 while cautioning that Schedule 21 does not exhaustively list all such factors.

  2. Relevance and Weight of Previous Convictions: The court considered whether the Judge correctly weighed Norris’ historical convictions dating back to 1987 as significant aggravating factors, referencing R v Last [2005] EWCA Crim 106.

  3. Location of Offence as Aggravating Factor: The General guideline’s approach to the offence’s location was considered, particularly regarding the victim’s home as a location lending to the seriousness of the offence, as mentioned in R v Reeves [2023] EWCA Crim 384.

  4. Victim’s State: Victim vulnerability, especially when asleep, was recognized as heightening the defencelessness and vulnerability, thus aggravating the offence.

  5. Primary Aggravating Factors: The court assessed the principal aggravating factors that justified an increase from the starting point in the sentencing guidelines.

  6. Secondary Aggravating Factors: Factors like the accused’s attempt to conceal the crime by disposing of the knife and the state of intoxication were considered for their relevance and contribution to the aggravation of the offence.

  7. Mitigating Factors: These included the character of the offender, lack of recent violence, lack of sophistication, and the belief the deceased had been violent towards Norris’ partner.

  8. Application of Sentencing Guidelines: The court underscored the application of R v Jones [2005] EWCA Crim 3115 on how guidance in Schedule 21 ought to be applied, emphasizing a judgment based on individual case facts rather than a strict arithmetic summation.

  9. Blame of Another: The principle that blaming another should not be an aggravating factor in sentencing was referenced from R v Lowndes [2014] 1 Cr App R (S) 75.


The Court of Appeal upheld the sentence, concluding that the Judge’s sentence was not manifestly excessive despite the acceptance that certain factors were not as aggravating as treated. The primary aggravating factors were the planned nature of the attack and victim’s vulnerability due to being asleep. The argument that the mitigating factors should have led to a lesser sentence was rejected, as they were considered insubstantial.


In Richard Lee Norris v R, the Court of Appeal highlighted the nuanced assessment of aggravating and mitigating factors in murder sentencing under UK law. The Court reaffirmed that sentencing remains an individualised exercise guided by but not dictated by statutory lists of factors. The appeal’s dismissal underscores the principle that aggravating factors such as the crime’s location, previous convictions, and steps to cover one’s tracks, when balanced against mitigating factors, can result in substantial sentences that courts are likely to uphold.

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